Why was castling added in chess


en passant

The French expression en passantcan be translated as "in passing" and describes a special stroke of a pawn in chess.
It is understood as the right of a player to capture an opposing pawn with a pawn even if he moves from the starting position by a double step beyond the capture area of ​​his own pawn. In this case the pawn move is to be assessed as if it had only taken one step forward from the starting position instead of two. en passantmay only be captured immediately after the opposing pawn has taken a double step.
This special rule came about because the pawns were allowed to take a double step. At the same time, however, an advanced pawn should not lose the effect of being able to stop a pawn on the starting square. So it was still attractive to play an offensive game because en passantIt is only possible to capture if a pawn has already advanced to the 5th row while the opponent's pawn is still on the back row. In this case it is made impossible for the opposing pawn to avoid the attack by taking a double step.


The castlingis a chess move in which the king and rook move at the same time. It is the only move where two pieces of the same color are moved. The aim of castling is to bring the king into a safe position and at the same time to develop the rook concerned.
The king, who first touches or has to be moved when performing castling, takes two steps in the direction of the rook, then the rook jumps over him onto the neighboring square. A distinction is made between the longor. hugeCastling with the (further away) ladies' tower and the shortor. smallCastling with the nearby Königsturm.

Castling can only be carried out if
  • the king has not yet been drawn,
  • the tower involved has not yet been moved,
  • there is no other piece between the king and the rook involved,
  • the king does not have to move across a square that is threatened by an enemy piece,
  • the king is not in check before and after castling,
  • The rook and king are on the same row. This condition was added because otherwise Pam Krabbé castling is possible.
The tower may be threatened or move across a threatened space. Castling is considered a king move. If a player casts illegally and his opponent claims this, he must make another king move (this can also be castling with the other rook). If no legal king move is possible, he can make any legal move (so he does not have to move the rook that was involved in illegal castling).

  • Castling is the only move in which two stones of the same color are moved at the same time.
  • It is also the only move that clears two spaces at the same time.
  • As the only figure move, it cannot be a stroke move.
  • Aside from capturing en passant, castling is the only move where past position matters.
  • Two positions with the same position of the pieces, but different castling rights, have been considered different in the sense of the repetition of positions since 1964. The castling right is only lost with the move, if the king or the corresponding rook actually moves, but not yet with a move that forces a king or rook to move.
  • Like pawn and capture moves, it cannot be undone in a later move.
  • Castling is the only move in which a king may move beyond an adjacent square.
  • It is the only move on which a rook can jump over another stone (the king).
  • Aside from withdrawal chess, it is the only way to bid chess with a king move.


Algebraic notation

Algebraic notation is commonly used today.
The chessboard is assigned a coordinate system. A game of chess is recorded in writing by recording the starting square and the target square of the individual moves.
In the detailed algebraic notationthe type of piece (K = king, D = queen, T = rook, L = bishop, S = knight, for pawns the information is omitted), the starting and the target square are given. Stroke moves are indicated by an "x" between the starting and target fields. A check bid receives a “+” behind the move, a checkmate “++” or “#”. If a pawn is converted into another piece, the letter of this piece is indicated after the move. Small castling is indicated by 0–0, large castling by 0-0-0. The en-passant striking is indicated by a trailing e.p. marked. A draw offer is indicated by (=).
After the last move, the result of the game is noted, a 1: 0 stands for the victory of the player with the white pieces, a 0: 1 for the victory of the player with the black pieces, a ½: ½ for a tie (draw ). Games won without a fight are noted with +: - or -: +.
e2-e4Bauer moves from e2 to e4
Nb1xc3 +the knight on b1 moves to c3, captures the opposing piece there and offers check
Rd1-d8 ++
Rook moves from d1 to d8 and mates
e7-e8DThe pawn on e7 moves to e8 and turns into a queen
f5xg6 e.p.Pawn f5 captures the opposing pawn on g5 in passing and moves to g6

Abbreviated algebraic notation

In the Short notationthe starting field is omitted. If a move is no longer clearly described, the starting line (if this is not identical) or the starting row (if both pieces are on the same line) are added.
Bc4Bishop moves to c4
Bxc4The bishop moves to c4 and captures an opposing piece there
b4Pawn moves to b4
axb4Pawn a3 moves to b4 and captures an opposing piece there
fxg6 e.p.Pawn f5 moves to g6 and captures the opposing pawn on g5 in passing
Sec4the knight on the e-file moves to c4
Sexc4the knight on the e-file hits c4
T1c7the rook on the first row moves to c7
cxd8DPawn on c7 takes on d8 and turns into a queen
cxd8S +Pawn on c7 takes d8, turns into a knight and offers check

English notation

In the Anglo-Saxon literature from the period up to the 1980s one finds predominantly the English notation. With this notation, the fields are not described in a common coordinate system that is uniform for both players, but rather from the perspective of the player whose move is being described, starting from the starting position of the pieces on his own back row.
For example, the field d3 in this notation has the following designation:
  • Q3 (queen three) from the point of view of the white player
  • Q6 from the black player's point of view
From around 1980 the major Anglo-Saxon chess publishers switched to algebraic notation, so that the English notation can hardly be found in recent literature and in current tournament reports.

Chess clock

A Chess clockis a clock with two time displays that are linked together so that only one movement can run at the same time. This is used to limit and display the time the players think about during a game of chess.
If a player has exceeded the time available to him (in tournament chess usually 120 minutes for the first 40 moves, in rapid chess between 15 and 60, in blitz chess tournaments usually only 5 minutes for the entire game), the game is considered lost for him.
Chess clocks were developed for the game of chess, but in principle they can also be used in other strategic board games for two players - for example checkers or go.


When a game of chess ends in a draw, it is called one draw.
You can give your opponent a Offer a draw, this one can do it Reject a draw offeror that Accept a draw offer. If a game ends in a draw, one also says that the opponents have drew. If neither side has a profitable advantage during a game, then one also says, "The game is within the Draw range".
Since the international chess tournament in Dundee in 1867, a draw game has been rated with half a point, and a player receives a whole point for a win. The term “draw” was also transferred to other sports and areas of life.

A game ends in a draw

  • if the player who is to move has no move options, but his king is not in check (stalemate)
  • if neither player has enough pieces left to checkmate the other player (e.g. bishop, king against king or 2 knights, king against king)
  • if the two players agree on it.
  • if no piece has been captured for 50 moves (whereby a pawn also counts as a piece in the sense of this rule) and no pawn has been moved and the player who has the move then claims a draw
  • if a player who is on the move proves that the same position has the same move rights for at least the third time
    will be made by his next move, first writing his move on his score sheet and telling the umpire that he intends to make that move
    or has just been created
he has the right to claim a draw with reference to this fact. This is called 3-fold repetition of positions.
  • through eternal chess. A player constantly gives chess bids, the repetition of which the opponent cannot avoid.
  • when reaching a "dead position" (wedged pawn structure or knight against king or the like, no player can now win by a legal sequence of moves)
  • if one of the players exceeds the cooling-off time, but his opponent no longer has enough mating material available, d. H. can no longer win through a legal sequence of moves
  • if both Players exceed their cooling off time

Game phases

The first 10 to 15 moves of a game of chess are known as the opening. The strategic goals during the opening are the mobilization of the characters, the safety of the king and the mastery of the center. The openings are divided into Open games, Semi-open gamesand Closed games. A sacrifice (often a pawn) in the opening with the aim of gaining other advantages (e.g. attack or development advantage) is called a gambit (e.g. Scottish gambit, queen's gambit, king's gambit).
In the middle game, the players try to influence the course of the game in their favor with the means of strategy and tactics. Well-known strategic and tactical motifs make it easier for chess players to lead the game.
When there are only a few pieces left on the chessboard, it is called the endgame. The strategic goal in the endgame is often to convert a pawn. With this material preponderance, the game can usually be won easily.


Through a Victimbe in the game of chess voluntaryone or more pieces or pawns offered to capture (sacrificed), whereby the resulting material disadvantage should at least be compensated for by other advantages. If the sacrifice (usually a pawn) is made during the opening phase, it is called a gambit.
In the case of a victim, figures of the opposing party are often beaten that are adequately defended, whereby the acceptance of the victim is often forced in order not to be materially disadvantaged. Sacrifices are often part of multiple combinations, but can also be part of a long-term strategic plan. The material value of the characters, which is considered normal in the game, is "abruptly" negated or ignored. The sacrifice often comes unexpectedly for one of the players, since in the course of the game one often only takes into account the usual figure value and does not recognize exceptional situations in which, for example, positional advantages outweigh material ones. This affects inexperienced players more often than strong players or even grandmasters.
The success of a victim depends on the correct evaluation of the resulting position. Otherwise the material advantage of the opponent can lead to the loss of the game, in this case one speaks of an "incorrect" sacrifice.


The BondageIn the game of chess, there is a position in which a piece cannot move because it is in the line of action between the opposing piece and its own king or own piece. There are three types of bondage:
  • Real bondage: the tied figure cannot pull according to the rules at all
  • Almost real bondage: the tied figure can only move within the line of action of the opposing figure or possibly capture the captive figure.
  • Unreal restraint: the restrained figure is not restricted in its movement by the restraint itself, strictly according to the rules of the game.
Shackles are one of the most common elements of a chess tactic. Shackling a figure usually means weakening it. You also have to expect that the opponent will attack the tied figure several times.


There is one in chess forka double attack by one piece on two or more opposing pieces or spaces.

The fork attack is often a decisive tactical twist, because not all threats can usually be parried.

In principle, each figure can make a fork attack. The most common are Knight forkand Farmer's fork.

In practice, the threat of launching a forked attack is often enough to wrest a positional concession from the opponent and thus gain an advantage.

The threat of a fork attack therefore plays an important role in many chess games.

In the diagram forksthe white knight, the black queen and the black rook. Since the queen and the rook cannot move away at the same time, it makes sense for Black to avoid the queen

Double chess deduction chess

If you can move a piece in such a way that by moving away the line of action of your own piece behind it becomes free on the opposing king, then one speaks of a withdrawal check.

Since this check must be parried, the withdrawing piece has a wider range of movement than with a normal move, since an additional attack from it cannot be countered in the next move.

If the withdrawing piece in turn gives check, one speaks of a double check.

Withdrawal chess and double chess often have a devastating effect because the opponent has to react to the chess command and has to accept the consequences of the move of the withdrawing piece.

In double chess, the king must move, since the move of another piece cannot capture both pieces or block both chess bids at the same time.

Online chess

Online chessVia a chess server: There are a number of chess sites on the Internet that offer chess against other people. Similar to the German valuation number (DWZ) and the ELO number, good chess servers usually determine the skill level of each player. Although the ratings cannot be directly compared with one another, they allow the player to find an opponent of his skill level on the server. It is also common for the players to be able to talk to each other (chat) and analyze each other's games.

Correspondence chess

As in online chess, the opponents are spatially separated from each other. However, the cooling off period is usually between 30 and 60 days for 10 trains. The moves are exchanged by postcard, fax, e-mail, on the chess server or through other media. Correspondence chess games are sometimes also called Correspondence gamesdesignated. A remote game can be played over weeks, months or years.
In correspondence chess - in contrast to the rest of chess - it is customary and permitted to use chess programs, databases and books.
The definition of correspondence chess based on the special transfer of moves due to the spatial separation of the opponents and the reflection time calculated in days is no longer sufficient today. This is due to the fact that playing styles associated with local chess, such as blitz games on chess servers, can be played by spatially separated opponents, and with rapid correspondence chess the reflection time is not calculated in days. That is why the term correspondence chess is used today to designate chess games in which the moves are sent by post or electronically and - in contrast to close-up chess - all aids can be used.
In the 19th century, long-distance games were popular as competitions between clubs or cities, and radio competitions between the USA and the USSR enjoyed great attention during the Cold War. However, the majority of the games took place between individual players

Simultaneous chess

The Simultaneous chessis a form of chess game in which one player competes against several opponents at the same time.
Simultaneous games give players with low or medium knowledge and skills the opportunity to compete against players with high or very high skill levels. For the simultaneous opponents, who would have no chance in a 1: 1 game against such a player, the longer time to think about it and the concentration on only one game increase the chances of success. The simultaneous player not only has to oversee several games, he also has to react faster Simultaneous playerhas the choice of color. Usually he will play the same color on all boards, mostly white. His own reflection time is at his discretion (unless limits have been agreed for the specific event).
The Simultaneous opponenthas as long time to think about a move as the simultaneous player needs for a round across all boards, then he should move in front of the simultaneous player's eyes.
The simultaneous opponent has to play his game like the simultaneous player without outside help. For the game itself, the usual competition rules apply (with the exception of the time to think about it) such as "Touched - led", abandonment, draw offers and the direct rules on the board.
Since chess games end at different speeds, the simultaneous player only plays on a few boards in the final phase. Since these are presumably the strongest of his opponents, his handicap is only slightly lower.

Blind chess

The Blind chess, also Blind play, is a form of chess in which at least one of the players plays without looking at the chessboard - from memory.
In blind play, the moves are announced using chess notation.
A popular variant of the blind game is the blind simultaneous chess, in which the blind player against several seeingOpponents at the same time.
World champion Alexander Alekhine drew attention to the partially significantly lower level of the games in blind chess compared to normal tournament chess. This assessment has not changed to this day.

Rapid chess

The Rapid chessis a type of chess, which is characterized by a special form of time control. The time to think about rapid chess is between 15 and 60 minutes per player for all moves. The rules for making moves correspond to those of normal chess, which are specified by the international chess organization FIDE.
Rapid chess occupies a middle position between normal tournament chess and blitz chess when it comes to thinking time. The time consumption per player is measured in all three forms of chess using a chess clock.
If the world leaders play with digital chess clocks, the "Fischer game mode" is usually used today, with around 25 minutes to think about the game and an additional time credit of 10 seconds per move.
Furthermore, some special rules apply in rapid chess which are not valid in normal chess: For example, if the move is impossible, the opponent is given time credits and the obligatory note-taking of the moves is omitted.
Rapid chess is a relatively new development and became popular around the mid-1980s. Normal chess and blitz chess had existed for much longer. While normal chess is not very attractive for most spectators due to its slowness and blitz chess considerably reduces the quality of the game, rapid chess offers a synthesis of the advantages of both other forms.

Blitz chess

Blitz chessor short lightningis a form of chess game in which each player has only a few (usually five) minutes to think about the entire game. If a player exceeds the cooling-off time, he loses the game, unless the opponent does not have enough material to checkmate at this point. In this case the game ends in a draw.
Blitz chess is popular as an entertaining and entertaining form of chess, which is mainly played on game evenings in chess clubs or in chess bars (often also for money).
A rule that differs from normal tournament chess is that a non-compliant move may only be corrected if the player in question has not yet operated his clock; afterwards it leads to the immediate loss of the game if this is noticed and complained about by the opponent or to a draw if the opponent only has the king.
If a chess command is not observed, capturing the king on the following move is not permitted; instead, the player on the move must claim the win of the game without making his move.

Tandem chess

The Tandem chessis a variant of chess in which two teams of two players each sit opposite each other on two chess boards. The players on a team play with different colors. In principle, the normal rules of the World Chess Federation FIDE apply.
If, however, a piece is captured, it is passed to the partner, who may use it instead of a move on his own board on a free space. There are also special rules for placing pieces (see below).
If a player wins by exceeding the time limit or by mating his opponent, his team has won and the other game is considered over. If the clock of one player in a team has run out or if a player in a team mates his opponent at the same time, the fight is counted as a tie.
Without the use of chess clocks, tandem chess is hardly playable, as the time factor plays an important role: People often wait for pieces to be captured by the partner, for example to attach a knight's fork or to fend off an opposing threat of mating. For this reason, the game is usually played with a short reflection time of 5 or only 3 minutes per game.

There are different rules for the insertion.
  • Pieces may be used to bid in check or in checkmate.
  • Pawns may not be used on your own or on the opposing back row (i.e. only on rows 2-7)
  • From then on, pawns who reach the opposing back row are to be treated like a queen (or, if the player so wishes, like a rook, bishop or knight) (Cardboard lady). If they are beaten, however, they can only be used as pawns.
Deviating from this, there are the following rules
  • Pieces may not be used in such a way that they offer check
  • or Pieces may be used in such a way that they offer check, but not in such a way that they offer checkmate.
  • Farmers are allowed up to the 6th or 7th (or 3rd or 2nd) row can be used.
  • or Farmers may not be used.
  • or Pawns can be used anywhere except for the opposing back row (ie rows 1–7).
Different rules for the use of the pawns
  • The player who converts the pawn may take any piece (except for the king and pawn) from the board of the player on the other team who is of the same color as him and use it for the pawn. The converted pawn then goes to the opposing team. If there is no suitable piece to place on, the pawn can stay on his field until a suitable piece is placed on the second board.
  • or Pawns who reach the opposing back row "fail" (are taken from the board and fall to the opposing team).
  • or Pawns become on the 8th row Bottom row lady. This can only move around (and capture) on the back row, but can also offer check to a king outside the back row. A white pawn on a8, for example, offers check to a black king on b7, but cannot capture a black queen on b7. If the back row queen is defeated, she can only be used as a pawn.

Chess960 or Schach960

The line-up of the pieces on the basic row is determined anew for each game. This is intended to reduce the importance of opening theory.
Originally it was also called Fischer-Random-Chess or Fischerschach. It is a chess variant developed by chess grandmaster Bobby Fischer with 960 possible different starting positions. Strictly speaking, it is a generalization of the game of chess through an almost arbitrary arrangement of the known chess pieces on the back row of each party.
This variant was presented for the first time on June 19, 1996 in Buenos Aires. Fischer's goal was to develop a variant of chess that placed more emphasis on the creativity and talent of the player than on memorizing and analyzing openings. This should be achieved through random opening positions, which make memorizing opening moves unhelpful.
The rules for Chess960 were included in 2009 by the world chess federation FIDE as part of the chess rules in their set of rules.
  • Opening positions
    The opening positions in Chess960 must meet the following rules:
    The white pawns are in their usual positions.
    All other white pieces are in the first row.
    The white king stands between the white towers.
    One white runner stands on white, the other on black.
    The black figures are placed mirror-symmetrically corresponding to the white ones.
    For example, if the white king is on f1, the black king is placed on f8.
    The number of 960 possible starting positions results from combinatorial considerations: There are four possible fields for each runner; after their positioning there are still six options for the queen, then five or four options for the two knights. The rest is mandatory, as the king stands between the two indistinguishable rooks. If the jumpers can be distinguished, this would result in 4 × 4 × 6 × 5 × 4 = 1920 possible opening positions. But since the jumpers cannot be distinguished either, this number has to be halved, which then leads to the 960 variations.
    Once the opening position has been found, a normal game of chess is practically played. All pieces follow the rules known from normal chess.
  • Castling rules
    As in normal chess, in Chess960 every player is allowed to castle once per game. Since the positions of the king and rooks do not have to correspond to the regular positions, castling must be redefined:
    • After c-castling (corresponds to long castling) the king stands on the c-line, the castling rook on the d-line.
    • After g-castling (corresponds to short castling), the king stands on the g-file, the castling rook on the f-file. This means that the end positions of the pieces involved correspond exactly to those of the corresponding positions in normal chess.
    • Contrary to the usual restriction that the king may not cross an occupied square in castling, in Chess960 he may cross the square on which the castling rook was. However, this is the only piece whose place the king is allowed to cross during castling.
    These conventional rules also apply:
    • All fields between the start and finish field (including) of the king and the castle tower must be free of other figures.
    • A player may only castle if neither the rook concerned nor the king has been moved beforehand.
    • The king may not be in check before or after castling and may not cross a threatened square.
    As a consequence we get:
    • Each player can castle a maximum of once per game.
    • If the opening position corresponds to that of normal chess, the normal castling rules are also valid.
    • King and rook cannot skip pieces, except each other.
    • No piece can be captured by castling.
    • In some opening positions, after castling, positions that are free in normal chess may be occupied. (For example, after major castling, the a-file may be occupied.)
    • In some opening positions it can happen that only the rook or only the king is moved during castling. This occurs at Ta1 / b1, Kc1; Th1, Kg1 or Ke / f / g1, Td1; Kb / c / d / e1, Rf1
    • It is possible for the king and rook to move in the same direction during castling. In c-castling, this occurs e.g. B. at Kb1, Ta1 or Kf1, Te1 (or accordingly on the 8th row).
  • The castling process
    When playing with a human opponent on a physical board, it is recommended that the king is first placed outside the board next to his future square, then the rook is placed in its end position and finally the king is placed in its end position. This rule is easy to follow and shows the planned move unmistakably. Meanwhile, there is a regulation of the WNCA that the order of contact does not matter when castling. All figures involved in a move can be touched at will. In castling, these are the king and rook; in the case of pulls, it is the moving figure and the prey figure. However, especially for players who are new to Chess960, it may be appropriate to announce castling in order to prevent misunderstandings. If you are playing with a chess clock, pressing the clock can be taken as a sign that a castling move has now been completed.
  • Ambiguities in the rules of castling
    Unfortunately, many publications of the rules of castling appear to be ambiguous. For example, the first publications by Eric van Reem and chessvariants.com do not specifically state that the spaces between the king and his new position must be clear. As a result, some players who relied on it said that the king could skip other stones in castling.
    In 2003 David A. Wheeler asked many active "Fischer Random Chess" players, among them Eric van Reem, Hans-Walter Schmitt and R. Scharnagl, in order to determine the exact rules. Everyone agreed that the king was not allowed to cross any occupied field, with the exception of the field of the castle tower.
    Even in classical chess, castling is prohibited as long as a piece is between the king and rook. Since the Chess960 is a compatible superset of the conventional chess game, neither third pieces may be skipped or captured during castling.
  • The game
    Chess960's openings are not well studied, but there are some fundamental ground rules here too, including:
    • The king should be protected.
    • Control over the central fields remains important.
    • The pieces should be developed quickly as in normal chess, with the lower value (bishop, knight) taking precedence.
    • In some opening positions there are unprotected pawns, whose protection you should pay particular attention to.
    Some argue that with each opening position, two games of color change should be made for the players, as some opening positions are very beneficial for White.
  • Determination of the starting position
    There are many methods of triggering the opening position. In large tournaments, a computer (or dice) is used to determine a random number between 1 and 960 and derive a position from it. This starting position is then projected onto a wall so that it is visible to all participants and thus announced.
    A chess clock has already been launched for individual games that shows a random starting position for Chess960 at the push of a button.
    • With a dice
      Ingo Althöfer suggested the following method in 1998 to roll the opening position with just one die:
      • The first throw determines the field for White's black-squared bishop. The black fields are counted starting from the left according to the number of pips (a1, c1, e1, g1). Since throws 5 and 6 have no equivalents, they are repeated.
      • The white bishop is then positioned in the same way. The fields b1, d1, f1, h1 correspond to the throws 1, 2, 3, 4.
      • The next throw, counting again from the left, shows the position of the queen on the remaining free spaces.
      • The next throws position the jumpers on the remaining free fields. The first knight has to throw again on a 6, for the second on a 5 and 6.
      • Finally, a white rook is placed on the first free space from the left, the king on the second and a rook on the last remaining space.
      With this method, 960 different opening positions can be generated, which occur with the same probability. One of these positions is the normal chess opening position, which then leads to a normal chess game.
    • Non-Random Setups The opening position does not have to be random. For example, a tournament line-up can be set or the players agree on an opening position.
      Edward Northam recommended the following procedure in order to be able to generate the opening position without tools:
      • Runner, jumper and queen are sorted out.
      • The players - black first - take turns taking one of the pieces at will and placing it on a free space. The only restriction is that the second bishop cannot be placed on the same color as the first.
      • After all five pieces have been placed, the king is placed on the middle of the three remaining free spaces and the rooks on the other two.
      A forerunner of this process was free chess in 1921, which was developed by Erich Brunner.