A blood sugar of 135 is high

Blood Sugar Levels: What They Mean, How To Measure Correctly!

Blood sugar levels are the most important criterion in diagnosing diabetes

What are normal values? How do blood sugar levels get too high? And when and how should you measure?

By: Benjamin Honda

What is the blood sugar level?

The blood sugar value is used to measure the amount of glucose in the blood. This makes it an important means of diagnosing and treatingDiabetes mellitus (Diabetes). A distinction is made between long-term sugar (HbA1c) and short-term sugar. Long-term blood sugar is determined in a laboratory procedure. Diabetics should have it measured every three months. The long-term value shows how many sugar molecules have attached to the red blood cells in the past eight to twelve weeks. Anyone can determine the short-term value themselves with modern measuring devices. A doctor can also do the oral glucose tolerance test. The patient drinks a sugar solution for this and after certain periods of time it is measured how the blood sugar level is developing.

What influences blood sugar levels?

Diet and exercise or exercise are the most important factors for blood sugar levels. After eating, the amount of glucose in the blood rises sharply. The pancreas then secretes the hormone insulin, with the help of which the cells absorb the glucose, which serves them as an energy supplier. The blood sugar drops back to normal. If someone has type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin. In type 2, the cells have developed insulin resistance, which is why they no longer react as strongly to the hormone.

This leads to excessively high blood sugar levels

With this disease, the body can no longer bring the blood sugar levels to normal levels itself - excess sugar is created. Diabetics must therefore regulate their sugar balance permanently, for example with insulin injections, in order to achieve individually set target values ​​with the doctor. In the beginning, however, nutrition and exercise are particularly important adjusting screws so that the cell receptors react more sensitively to insulin again.

Mandatory text

Esberitox Compact
Area of ​​application: for the supportive therapy of viral colds.

Area of ​​application: for the supportive therapy of viral colds.

For information on risks and side effects, read the package insert and ask your doctor or pharmacist. Pharmacy only.

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How high are the normal values?

Blood sugar values ​​are measured in mg / dl (milligrams per deciliter) or in mmol / l (millimoles per liter). The value for long-term sugar is given in percent. The values ​​come from the guidelines of the German Diabetes Society.

Blood glucose table for adults


No diabetes




mg / dl

mmol / l







2 h after d. eat

mg / dl

mmol / l











At a Hypoglycaemia if the blood sugar values ​​are below 3.3 mmol / l (60 mg / dl).

Blood sugar table for children




Moderate (measures recommended)

Bad (action required)


mg / dl

mmol / l

65 – 100

3,6 - 5,6

90 – 145






2h after d. eat

mg / dl

mmol / l

80 - 126

4,5 – 7

90 - 180

5 -10

180 - 250

10 – 14






7,5 – 9 %


Target values ​​for existing diabetes vary from patient to patient and depend on many factors such as age, other diseases or lifestyle. Patients should therefore clarify their individual target values ​​carefully with their doctor.

When is the blood sugar level measured?

Measurements are taken either on an empty stomach (12 hours after the last meal), before eating or two hours after eating. Anyone who has high blood sugar levels must definitely have them checked by a doctor. Type 1 diabetes usually develops within a few weeks. Symptoms are intense thirst, frequent urination, constant fatigue, weight loss. Type 2 diabetes is much more difficult to recognize because it usually develops slowly and is only discovered after years.

Blood sugar values ​​are measured at:

  • Suspected diabetes in people at risk of diabetes
  • to control diabetes
  • in pregnancy, in newborns
  • Checkups
  • Unconsciousness with no explainable cause
  • Carbohydrate metabolism disorders
  • Pancreas disease

How often should you measure your blood sugar level?

People with diabetes often have to measure their blood sugar several times a day: for example, before meals, at bedtime or before driving. Regular monitoring is intended to prevent permanent high blood sugar or even ketoacidosis, but also low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), for example due to an excessively high dose of insulin.

If patients make sure to avoid excess and hypoglycaemia, they can significantly reduce the risk of secondary diseases. It is therefore important to have a measurement diary in which the blood sugar levels are recorded. In addition to the blood sugar values ​​themselves, you should also note blood pressure, diet and exercise or exercise. This gives additional information about the formation of the blood sugar level and motivates to lead a healthy lifestyle.

How are blood sugar levels measured?

  1. Wash hands with soap and dry well
  2. Insert the lancet
  3. Take the test strip out of the packaging and insert it into the meter
  4. Massaging the fingertip before the prick promotes blood circulation
  5. Prick the side of the fingertip (index finger and thumb are most needed in everyday life, so take care of them)
  6. If there is not enough blood: Gently press the fingertip or lightly swipe from the finger to the tip
  7. Apply blood quickly to the test strip

The correct measurement of blood sugar levels is very important. If you have any questions or are unsure, you should not hesitate to get help from a doctor or the pharmacy.

What can falsify the measurement of blood sugar levels?

Modern measuring devices are very reliable, but errors in the measurement can still show an incorrect blood sugar value. There are a few things you can do to avoid the most common mistakes:

  • Before measuring, wash your hands well with soap and dry them, as dirty or damp hands can easily affect the result.
  • Do not remove the test strip from the original packaging until you are ready to take the measurement.
  • Do not use dropped or expired test strips.
  • Do not store test strips in heat, sunlight or in the refrigerator.
  • Measure immediately as soon as the blood rises to the surface, otherwise chemical reactions can affect the result.
  • Pressing the fingertip too hard to bring more blood to the surface can also falsify the value.
  • Medicines can also influence the measurement results. It is advisable to consult a doctor here.

What can you do against high blood sugar levels?

Excessively high blood sugar levels always belong in the hands of an experienced doctor. Lifestyle has a major impact on blood sugar levels. In particular, a healthy diet, sport and exercise are measures that counteract diabetes.

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Mandatory text

Mandatory information: ALLUNA®

Areas of application: restlessness and nervous sleep disorders. Contains soybean meal.

For information on risks and side effects, read the package insert and ask your doctor or pharmacist.

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