Has modern feminism become sexist?

(Anti) feminism

"Men and women are equal." This is Article 3, Paragraph 2 of the Basic Law, supplemented since 1994 by the sentence that it is the task of the state to contribute to this equality. In many ways, men and women today have equal rights: women have had the right to vote for 100 years, they have been able to open their own account for over 40 years, and for two years they have also been able to take legal action against sexual harassment with physical contact. In some respects, however, they are not (yet) so: sexual violence, gender pay gap, female poverty in old age and many other things show that women are structurally more likely to face disadvantages. The struggle for equality is a long and not yet finished story and the subject of numerous, also contradicting, disputes: At the end of June 2017, the "marriage for all" and thus the equality of homosexual partnerships was decided in the Bundestag, in autumn 2017 the debate about #MeToo shook the Power relations in culture, media and politics in many countries around the world and made it clear that sexual harassment represents a massive violation of borders. At the same time, a new anti-feminism can be observed in many countries, which has taken up the fight against "gender".

Since women have been demanding equality, there has been more or less organized resistance to it. Both - the demand for equality and resistance to it - are to be understood as modern phenomena. The social changes associated with modernity, be they of a technical, socio-economic or political nature - keywords: industrialization, urbanization, capitalism, liberalism, democracy - were a prerequisite and intensified the breaking up of traditional structures, values ​​and ties. This breaking up enabled freedom on the one hand, but also triggered fears on the other. Modernism therefore means, on the one hand, promises of freedom and equality, and, on the other hand, individualization, isolation and impoverishment and the loss of old notions of order that denied certain groups privileged and other opportunities to participate. The resistance to promises of emancipation is therefore fed by the fear of loss (including and especially of privileges) as well as the discomfort in view of the contradicting fulfillment of these promises.

Resistance to emancipation movements is described in different terms: misogyny, misogyny, sexism, anti-feminism and anti-gender. While misogyny, misogyny and misogyny as well as sexism are often used synonymously, the terms antifeminism and antigenderism can best be distinguished from them. According to the social scientist Herrad Schenk and the historian Ute Planert, anti-feminism is primarily intended to describe attitudes and behaviors that are directed against the women's movement or feminism and its achievements. Schenk justifies this distinction as follows: "It makes sense to make a distinction between 'misogyny' in general and 'anti-feminism' in the narrower sense, although the two phenomena occasionally merge. Misogyny has existed again and again long before the emergence of a women's movement; it forms an integral part of occidental culture. Under 'anti-feminism' only misogyny should be understood here, which is to be seen directly as a reaction to the women's movement, as resistance to its actual or supposed goals. "[1] I understand antigenderism as a current variant of anti-feminism .

In the following I explain the terms in more detail. The separation made is to be understood as analytical, in reality the phenomena cannot be so sharply demarcated from one another: For example, a misogynous attitude is often the prerequisite for anti-feminist actions or is expressed in them.