Which nation is the most caucasian

It was fashionable to "extend" your story at any time. Hence, every nation strives to demonstrate its family tree, starting with the ancient world, or even better, from the Stone Age. But there are peoples whose antiquity is beyond doubt.

Armenians (II millennium BC)

Among the oldest peoples in the world, the Armenians are perhaps the youngest. However, there are many blank spots in their ethnogenesis. For a long time, up to the late XIX century, canonical version of the Armenian origin. Its origin was the legendary King Hayk, who lived in 2492 BC. Came from Mesopotamia to the area of ​​Van. He was the first to outline the borders of the new state around Mount Ararat and became the founder of the Kingdom of Armenia. It is believed that the Armenians' self-designation "hai" comes from his name.

This version was recreated by the early medieval Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi. For early Armenian settlements, he took the ruins of the state of Urartra in the area of ​​Lake Van. The current official version says that the proto-Armenian tribes - the Mushki and the Urumeians - came to these areas in the second quarter of the 12th century. BC even before the formation of the Urartian state, after their destruction of the Hittite state. Here they mingled with the local tribes of the Hurrians, Urarts and Luwians.

According to the historian Boris Piotrovsky, the foundations of Armenian statehood should be sought during the existence of the hurricane kingdom Arme-Shubriya, known since the 12th century BC.

Jews (II-I millennium BC)

With the history of Jewish people there are more mysteries than in the history of Armenia. For a long time it was believed that the concept of "Jews" is more cultural than ethnic. This means that "Jews" were created by Judaism and not the other way around. There is still heated debate in science about what the Jews originally were - one people, one social class, one religious denomination. According to the main source for ancient history Jewish people - Old Testament,

Jews go back to Abraham (XXI-XXth centuries BC), who himself came from the Sumerian city of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia.

Together with his father he moved to Canaan, where later his descendants conquered the land of the local peoples (according to legend, the descendants of Noah's son Ham) and called Canaan "the land of Israel". According to another version, the Jewish people were formed during the "Exodus from Egypt".

If we take the linguistic version of the origin of the Jews, then they separated in the 2nd millennium BC. From the West Semitic speaking group. e. Your closest "language brothers" are the Amorites and Phoenicians. Recently a "genetic version" of the origins of the Jewish people has appeared. According to her, three main groups of Jews - Ashkenazi (America - Europe), Mizrahim (Middle Eastern and North African countries) and Sephardim (Iberian Peninsula) - share similar genetics, which confirms common roots ... According to a study of Abraham's children in the Genome, the ancestors of all three groups come from Mesopotamia. 2500 years ago (roughly during the reign of the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar) they split into two groups, one going to Europe and North Africa and the other settling in the Middle East.

Ethiopians (III millennium BC)

Ethiopia belongs to East Africa, the oldest region of origin of mankind. Its mythological story begins with the legendary land of Punt ("Land of the Gods"), which the ancient Egyptians regarded as their ancestral home. It is mentioned in Egyptian sources from the 3rd millennium BC. n. e. However, if the location is a moot point, like the existence of this legendary land, then the Nubian Kingdom of Kush in the Nile Delta was a very real neighbor to Ancient Egypt, which more than once questioned the existence of the latter. Despite the fact that the heyday of the Kushitic kingdom dates back to 300 BC. Chr. Fell. - 300 AD Civilization originated here much earlier, in the 24th century BC. along with the first Nubian kingdom of Kerma.

For a time, Ethiopia was a colony of the ancient Sabaean Kingdom (Saba), ruled by the legendary Queen of Saba. Hence the legend of the "Solomon Dynasty" which claims that the Ethiopian kings were direct descendants of Solomon and the Ethiopian Makeda (the Ethiopian name for the Queen of Sheba).

Assyrians (IV-III millennium BC)

If the Jews were from the western group of Semitic tribes, the Assyrians were from the northern group. Until the end of the 3rd millennium BC They gained dominance in northern Mesopotamia, but according to the historian Sadaev, their isolation could have happened even earlier - in the 4th millennium BC. The Assyrian Empire, which lasted from the 8th to 6th centuries BC Existed, is considered to be the first empire in human history.

Modern Assyrians consider themselves direct descendants of the people of northern Mesopotamia, although this is a controversial fact in the scientific community. Some scholars support this point of view; others call the current Assyrians the descendants of the Aramaeans.

Chinese (4500-2500 BC)

The Chinese people, or Han, make up 19% of the world's population today. It arose on the basis of the Neolithic cultures that developed in the V-III millennia BC. in the middle of the Yellow River, in one of the centers of world cultures. This is confirmed by both archeology and linguistics. The latter distinguishes them into the Chinese-Tibetan language group, which emerged in the middle of the 5th millennium BC. As a result, numerous tribes of the Mongolian race took part in the further formation of the Han, speaking Tibetan, Indonesian, Thai, Altai and other culturally very different languages. The history of the Han people is closely linked to the history of China and still makes up most of the country's population today.

Basques (possibly XIV-X millennium BC)

A long time ago, in the fourth millennium BC BC, began the migration of Indo-Europeans who settled most of Eurasia. Today the languages ​​of the Indo-European family are spoken by almost all peoples of modern Europe. All but the Euskadi are better known to us under the name "Basques". Their age, origin and language are some of the main secrets of modern history. Someone believes that the ancestors of the Basques were the first population of Europe, someone says that they shared a homeland with the Caucasian peoples. But anyway,

The Basque language - Euskara - is considered the only relic of the pre-Indopean language that does not belong to any language family that exists today. In terms of genetics, according to a 2012 study by the National Geographic Society, all Basques contain a number of genes that significantly differentiate them from other peoples around them. According to scientists, this speaks in favor of the opinion that the Proto-Basques emerged as a separate culture 16,000 years ago during the Paleolithic.

Khoisan peoples (100,000 years ago)

A recent discovery by scientists has put the Khoisan, a group of South African peoples who speak the so-called "click tongues", first on the list of ancient peoples. These include, among others, hunters - Bushmen and Gogenttots shepherds.

A group of geneticists from Sweden found that they separated from the common tree of humanity 100,000 years ago, before the beginning of the exodus from Africa and the settlement of people around the world.

About 43,000 years ago, the Khoisan people were divided into a southern and a northern group. According to the researchers, part of the Khoisan population has retained its ancient roots, some, such as the Khwe tribe, have long mixed with the new Bantu peoples and lost their genetic identity.

The Khoisan's DNA is different from genes in the rest of the world. In it, "relic" genes were found, which are responsible for increased strength and endurance of the muscles as well as for a high susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation.

About 200 people live on the territory of Russia. The history of some of them goes back to the distant millennia before Christ. We found out which indigenous peoples of Russia are the oldest and who they come from.

There are many hypotheses about the origin of the Slavs - someone refers them to the Scythian tribes from Central Asia, someone to the mysterious Aryans, someone to the Germanic peoples. Hence, there are different ideas about the age of an ethnic group for which it is customary to add a few extra millennia “for reasons of solidity”.

First, try to determine the age of Slavic peoplethere was a monk Nestor who, on the basis of biblical tradition, began the story of the Slavs with the Babylonian pandemonium, which divided mankind into 72 peoples: "Of these 70 and 2, the language is the Language of the Slovenes ... ".

From an archaeological point of view, the first culture that can be described as Prot-Slavic, the so-called culture of burial of underhorses, which got its name from the custom, was to cover cremated remains with a large vessel in Polish "klesh", meaning "upside down" . It originated between the Vistula and the Dnieper in the 5th century BC. To a certain extent, we can assume that its representatives were Pre-Slavs.

The Southern Urals and the adjacent steppes, the areas in which the Bashkir ethnos developed, have been an important center of cultural interaction since ancient times. The archaeological diversity of the region amazes the researchers and records the question of the origin of the people in a long list of "mysteries of history".

Today there are three main versions of the origin of the Bashkir people. The "most archaic" - Indo-Iranian says that the main element in the formation of the ethnos were the Indo-Iranian Sako-Sarmatian, Dakho-Massaget tribes of the early Iron Age (III-IV centuries BC), whose settlement was the Southern Urals was. According to another Finno-Ugric version, the Bashkirs are the "siblings" of today's Hungarians, as they are descended from the Magyars and the Eno tribe (in Hungary - Eno). This is backed up by Hungarian tradition recorded in the 13th century about the journey of the Magyars from the east to Pannonia (modern-day Hungary), which they undertook to take possession of Attila's legacy.

Based on medieval sources in which Arab and Central Asian authors equate Bashkirs and Turks, a number of historians believe that these peoples are related.

According to the historian G. Kuzeev, the ancient Bashkir tribes (Burzyan, Usergan, Baylar, Surash and others) emerged in the 7th century AD on the basis of the early medieval Turkish communities and subsequently mixed with the Finno-Ugric tribes and tribal groups of Sarmatian origin. In the 13th century, nomadic Kypchakized tribes invaded historical Bashkortostan, which formed the appearance of modern Bashkirs.

The versions of the origins of the Bashkir people are not limited to this. Passion for philology and archeology, public figure Salavat Gallyamov hypothesized that the ancestors of the Bashkirs once left ancient Mesopotamia and reached the Southern Urals via Turkmenistan. However, in the scientific community this version is considered a "fairy tale".

The history of the Finno-Ugric people of the Mari begins at the beginning of the first millennium BC. Along with the formation of the so-called archaeological culture Ananyino (VIII-II centuries BC) in the Volga-Kama region.

Some historians identify them with the semi-legendary Fissagets - an ancient people who, according to Herodotus, lived near the Scythian lands. Of these, the Mari later emerged and settled from the right bank of the Volga to honey through the mouths of the Sura and the Tsivil.

During the early Middle Ages, they interacted closely with the Gothic, the Khazar tribes and the Volga Bulgaria. The Mari were annexed to Russia in 1552 after the conquest of the Kazan Khanate.

The ancestors of the North Sami people, the Komsa culture, came to the north in the Neolithic when these areas were liberated from the glacier. The Sami ethnos, whose name means "land" itself, goes back to the bearers of the ancient Volga culture and the Caucasian population of Dauphin. The latter, known in the scientific world as the culture of mesh ceramics, inhabited a wide area from the central Volga region north of Fennoscandia, including Karelia in the II-I millennia BC.

According to historian I. Manyukhin, after intermingling with the Volga tribes, they formed the ancient Sami historical community of three related cultures: Late Kargopol in Belozerye, Kargopol and Southeast Karelia, Lukonsaari - in East Finland and West Karelia, Kjelmo and "Arctic" in the North Karelia, Finland, Sweden, Norway and the Kola Peninsula.

At the same time, the Sami language appears and the physical appearance of the lobes (the Russian name for the Sami) is formed, which is inherent in these peoples today - short stature, widespread blue eyes and blonde hair.

Probably the first written mention of the Sami comes from the year 325 BC. And found in the ancient Greek historian Pytheas, who mentioned a certain people called "Fenni" (finoi). Then Tacitus wrote about them in the 1st century AD and talked about the wild people of the Fenians who lived in the area of ​​Lake Ladoga. Today the Sami in Russia live on the territory of the Murmansk region with the status of an indigenous population.

In the area of ​​Dagestan, where the remains of a settlement from the 6th millennium BC Found, many peoples can boast of their ancient origins. This is especially true of the Caucasian type peoples - Dargins, Laks. According to the historian V. Alekseev, the Caucasian group was formed in the same area that it now occupies on the basis of the oldest local population of the late Stone Age.

The Vainachian peoples, to which the Chechens ("Nokhchi") and the Ingush ("Galgai") belong, as well as many peoples of Dagestan belong to the ancient Caucasian anthropological types, like the Soviet anthropologist prof. Debets, "the most Caucasian of all Caucasians." Their roots should be sought in the archaeological culture of the Kuro-Arak in the North Caucasus at the beginning of the III. Millennium BC BC as well as in the Maikop culture, which inhabited the foothills of the North Caucasus during the same period.

The mention of the Vainakhs in written sources is first encountered by Strabo, who in his "Geography" mentions some "Gargarei" who live in the small foothills and plains of the Central Caucasus.

In the Middle Ages, the formation of the Vainach peoples was strongly influenced by the state of Alania at the foot of the North Caucasus, which fell under the hoofs of the Mongolian cavalry in the 13th century.

The small Siberian Yukaghir people ("people of the mezloty" or "distant people") can be called the oldest in Russia. According to the historian A. Okladnikov, this ethnos was engraved in the Stone Age around the 7th millennium BC. In the east of the Yenisei.

Anthropologists believe that these people, genetically isolated from their closest neighbors, the Tungus, are the oldest stratum of the autochthonous population of Polar Siberia. Their archaic nature is also evidenced by the longstanding custom of marital marriage, when the husband lives on the wife's territory after marriage.

By the 19th century, numerous Yukaghir tribes (Alai, Anauly, Kogime, Lavrentsy and others) occupied a wide area from the Lena River to the mouth of the Anadyr River. In the 19th century, their numbers began to decline significantly as a result of epidemics and civil wars. Some of the tribes were assimilated by the Yakuts, Evens and Russians. According to the 2002 census, the population of Yukaghir dropped to 1509

It was fashionable to "extend" your story at any time. Therefore, every nation strives to demonstrate its origins, starting with antiquity and even better with the Stone Age. But there are peoples whose antiquity is beyond doubt.

Armenians (II millennium BC)

Among the oldest peoples in the world, the Armenians are perhaps the youngest. However, there are many empty spots in their ethnogenesis. For a long time, until the end of the 19th century, the canonical version of the origin of the Armenian people was its origin from the legendary King Hayk, who died in 2492 BC. Came to Van from Mesopotamia. He was the first to outline the borders of the new state around Mount Ararat and became the founder of the Kingdom of Armenia. It is assumed that the Armenians' self-designation "hai" comes from his name. This version was recreated by the early medieval Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi. For the early Armenian settlements, he took the ruins of the state of Urartra in the area of ​​Lake Van.The current official version says that the proto-Armenian tribes - the Mushki and Urumeians - came to these areas in the second quarter of the 12th century. BC even before the formation of the Urartian state, after their destruction of the Hittite state. Here they mingled with the local tribes of the Hurrians, Urarts and Luwians. According to the historian Boris Piotrovsky, the foundations of Armenian statehood should be sought during the existence of the hurricane kingdom Arme-Shubriya, known since the 12th century BC.

Jews (II-I millennium BC)

There are more secrets with the history of the Jewish people than with the history of Armenia. For a long time it was believed that the concept of "Jews" is more cultural than ethnic. This means that "Jews" were created by Judaism and not the other way around. There is still heated debate in science about what the Jews originally were - the people, the social class, the religious denomination. According to the main source of the ancient history of the Jewish people - the Old Testament - the Jews go back to Abraham (XXI-XX centuries BC), who himself came from the Sumerian city of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia. Together with his father he moved to Canaan, where later his descendants conquered the land of the local peoples (according to legend the descendants of Noah's son Ham) and called Canaan "the land of Israel". According to another version, the Jewish people were formed during the "Exodus from Egypt". If we take the linguistic version of the origin of the Jews, then they separated in the 2nd millennium BC. From the West Semitic speaking group. e. Your closest "language brothers" are the Amorites and Phoenicians. Recently a "genetic version" of the origins of the Jewish people has appeared. According to her, the three main groups of Jews - Ashkenazi (America - Europe), Mizrahim (countries of the Middle East and North Africa) and Sephardi (Iberian Peninsula) - have similar genetics, confirming their common roots. According to a study of Abraham's children in the genome, the ancestors of all three groups came from Mesopotamia. 2500 years ago (roughly during the reign of the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar) they split into two groups, one going to Europe and North Africa and the other settling in the Middle East.

Ethiopians (III millennium BC)

Ethiopia belongs to East Africa, the oldest region of origin of mankind. Its mythological story begins with the legendary land of Punt ("Land of the Gods"), which the ancient Egyptians regarded as their ancestral home. It is mentioned in Egyptian sources from the 3rd millennium BC. n. e. However, if the location and existence of this legendary land is a controversial issue, then the Nubian Kingdom of Kush in the Nile Delta was a very real neighbor of ancient Egypt, which more than once questioned the existence of the latter. Despite the fact that the heyday of the Kushitic kingdom dates back to 300 BC. Chr. Fell. - 300 AD Civilization originated here much earlier, in the 24th century BC. along with the first Nubian kingdom of Kerma. For some time, Ethiopia was a colony of the ancient Sabaean Kingdom (Saba), ruled by the legendary Queen of Saba. Hence the legend of the "Solomon Dynasty" which claims that the Ethiopian kings were direct descendants of Solomon and the Ethiopian Makeda (the Ethiopian name for the Queen of Sheba).



Assyrians (IV-III millennium BC)

If the Jews were from the western group of Semitic tribes, the Assyrians were from the northern group. Until the end of the 3rd millennium BC They gained dominance in northern Mesopotamia, but according to the historian Sadaev, their isolation could have happened even earlier - in the 4th millennium BC. The Assyrian Empire, which has existed since the VIII-VI centuries BC, is considered to be the first empire in human history. Modern Assyrians consider themselves direct descendants of the people of northern Mesopotamia, although this is a controversial fact in the scientific community. Some scholars support this point of view; others call the current Assyrians the descendants of the Aramaeans.

Chinese (4500-2500 BC)

The Chinese people, or Han, make up 19% of the world's population today. It arose on the basis of Neolithic cultures that developed in the V-III millennia BC. in the middle of the Yellow River, in one of the centers of world cultures. This is confirmed by both archeology and linguistics. The latter distinguishes them into the Chinese-Tibetan language group, which emerged in the middle of the 5th millennium BC. As a result, numerous tribes of the Mongolian race took part in the further formation of the Han, speaking Tibetan, Indonesian, Thai, Altai and other culturally very different languages. The history of the Han people is closely linked to the history of China and still makes up most of the country's population today.

Basques (possibly XIV-X millennium BC)

A long time ago, in the fourth millennium BC BC, began the migration of Indo-Europeans who settled most of Eurasia. Today the languages ​​of the Indo-European family are spoken by almost all peoples of modern Europe. All but the Euskadi are better known to us under the name "Basques". Their age, origin and language are some of the main secrets of modern history. Someone believes that the ancestors of the Basques were the first population of Europe, someone says that they shared a homeland with the Caucasian peoples. Be that as it may, the Basques are considered to be one of the oldest populations in Europe. The Basque language - Euskara - is considered the only relic of the pre-Indopean language that does not belong to any language family that exists today. In terms of genetics, according to a 2012 study by the National Geographic Society, all Basques contain a number of genes that significantly differentiate them from other peoples around them. According to scientists, this speaks in favor of the opinion that the Proto-Basques emerged as a separate culture 16,000 years ago during the Paleolithic.

Khoisan peoples (100,000 years ago)

A recent discovery by scientists has put the Khoisan, a group of South African peoples who speak the so-called "click tongues", first on the list of ancient peoples. These include, among others, hunters - Bushmen and Gogenttots shepherds. A group of geneticists from Sweden found that they separated from the common tree of humanity 100,000 years ago, before the beginning of the exodus from Africa and the settlement of people around the world. About 43,000 years ago, the Khoisan people were divided into a southern and a northern group. According to the researchers, part of the Khoisan population has retained its ancient roots, some, such as the Khwe tribe, have long mixed with the new Bantu peoples and lost their genetic identity. Khoisan's DNA is different from genes in the rest of the world. In it, "relic" genes were found, which are responsible for increased strength and endurance of the muscles as well as for a high susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation.

It was fashionable to "extend" one's history at any time. Therefore, every nation strives to demonstrate its origins, starting with antiquity and even better with the Stone Age. But there are peoples whose antiquity is beyond doubt.

Armenians (II millennium BC)

Among the oldest peoples in the world, the Armenians are perhaps the youngest. However, there are many empty spots in their ethnogenesis. For a long time, until the end of the 19th century, the canonical version of the origin of the Armenian people was its origin from the legendary King Hayk, who died in 2492 BC. Came to Van from Mesopotamia. He was the first to outline the borders of the new state around Mount Ararat and became the founder of the Kingdom of Armenia. It is assumed that the Armenians' self-designation "hai" comes from his name. This version was recreated by the early medieval Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi. For early Armenian settlements, he took the ruins of the state of Urartra in the area of ​​Lake Van. The current official version says that the proto-Armenian tribes - the Mushki and the Urumeians - came to these areas in the second quarter of the 12th century. BC even before the formation of the Urartian state, after their destruction of the Hittite state. Here they mingled with the local tribes of the Hurrians, Urarts and Luwians. According to the historian Boris Piotrovsky, the foundations of Armenian statehood should be sought during the existence of the hurricane kingdom Arme-Shubriya, known since the 12th century BC.

Jews (II-I millennium BC)

There are more secrets with the history of the Jewish people than with the history of Armenia. For a long time it was believed that the concept of "Jews" is more cultural than ethnic. This means that "Jews" were created by Judaism and not the other way around. There is still heated debate in science about what the Jews originally were - the people, the social class, the religious denomination. According to the main source of the ancient history of the Jewish people - the Old Testament - the Jews go back to Abraham (XXI-XX centuries BC), who himself came from the Sumerian city of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia. Together with his father he moved to Canaan, where later his descendants conquered the land of the local peoples (according to legend, the descendants of Noah's son Ham) and called Canaan "the land of Israel". According to another version, the Jewish people were formed during the "Exodus from Egypt". If we take the linguistic version of the origin of the Jews, then they separated in the 2nd millennium BC. From the West Semitic speaking group. e. Your closest "language brothers" are the Amorites and Phoenicians. Recently a "genetic version" of the origins of the Jewish people has appeared. According to her, the three main groups of Jews - Ashkenazi (America - Europe), Mizrahim (countries of the Middle East and North Africa) and Sephardi (Iberian Peninsula) - have similar genetics, confirming their common roots. According to Abraham's children in the genome, the ancestors of all three groups came from Mesopotamia. 2500 years ago (roughly during the reign of the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar) they split into two groups, one going to Europe and North Africa and the other settling in the Middle East.

Ethiopians (III millennium BC)

Ethiopia belongs to East Africa, the oldest region of origin of mankind. Its mythological story begins with the legendary land of Punt ("Land of the Gods"), which the ancient Egyptians regarded as their ancestral home. It is mentioned in Egyptian sources from the 3rd millennium BC. n. e. However, if the location and existence of this legendary land is a controversial issue, then the Nubian Kingdom of Kush in the Nile Delta was a very real neighbor of ancient Egypt, which more than once questioned the existence of the latter. Despite the fact that the heyday of the Kushitic kingdom dates back to 300 BC. Chr. Fell. - 300 AD Civilization originated here much earlier, in the 24th century BC. along with the first Nubian kingdom of Kerma. For a time, Ethiopia was a colony of the ancient Sabaean Kingdom (Saba), ruled by the legendary Queen of Saba. Hence the legend of the "Solomon Dynasty" which claims that the Ethiopian kings were direct descendants of Solomon and the Ethiopian Makeda (the Ethiopian name for the Queen of Sheba).



Assyrians (IV-III millennium BC)

If the Jews were from the western group of Semitic tribes, the Assyrians were from the northern group. Until the end of the 3rd millennium BC They gained dominance in northern Mesopotamia, but according to the historian Sadaev, their isolation could have happened even earlier - in the 4th millennium BC. The Assyrian Empire, which has existed since VIII-VI. Century BC Existed, is considered to be the first empire in human history. Modern Assyrians consider themselves direct descendants of the people of northern Mesopotamia, although this is a controversial fact in the scientific community. Some scholars support this point of view; others call the current Assyrians the descendants of the Aramaeans.

Chinese (4500-2500 BC)

The Chinese people, or Han, make up 19% of the world's population today. It arose on the basis of the Neolithic cultures that developed in the V-III millennia BC. in the middle of the Yellow River, in one of the centers of world cultures. This is confirmed by both archeology and linguistics. The latter distinguishes them into the Chinese-Tibetan language group, which emerged in the middle of the 5th millennium BC. As a result, numerous tribes of the Mongolian race took part in the further formation of the Han, speaking Tibetan, Indonesian, Thai, Altai and other culturally very different languages. The history of the Han people is closely linked to the history of China and still makes up most of the country's population today.

Basques (possibly XIV-X millennium BC)

A long time ago, in the fourth millennium BC BC, began the migration of Indo-Europeans who settled most of Eurasia. Today the languages ​​of the Indo-European family are spoken by almost all peoples of modern Europe. All but the Euskadi are better known to us under the name "Basques". Their age, origin and language are some of the main secrets of modern history. Someone believes that the ancestors of the Basques were the first population of Europe, someone says that they shared a homeland with the Caucasian peoples. Be that as it may, the Basques are considered to be one of the oldest populations in Europe. The Basque language - Euskara - is considered the only relic of the pre-Indopean language that does not belong to any language family that exists today. In terms of genetics, according to a 2012 study by the National Geographic Society, all Basques contain a number of genes that significantly differentiate them from other peoples around them. According to scientists, this speaks in favor of the opinion that the Proto-Basques emerged as a separate culture 16,000 years ago during the Paleolithic.

Khoisan peoples (100,000 years ago)

A recent discovery by scientists has put the Khoisan, a group of South African peoples who speak the so-called "click tongues", first on the list of ancient peoples. These include, among others, hunters - Bushmen and Gogenttots shepherds. A group of geneticists from Sweden found that they separated from the common tree of humanity 100,000 years ago, before the beginning of the exodus from Africa and the settlement of people around the world. About 43,000 years ago, the Khoisan people were divided into a southern and a northern group. According to the researchers, part of the Khoisan population has retained its ancient roots, some, such as the Khwe tribe, have long mixed with the new Bantu peoples and lost their genetic identity. Khoisan's DNA is different from genes in the rest of the world. In it, "relic" genes were found, which are responsible for increased strength and endurance of the muscles as well as a high susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation.

We are not talking about groups of closely related peoples. For example, some peoples of the North Caucasus consider themselves relatives of the Sumerians. It can be like that. However, these are not the Sumerians themselves. We will consider individual ethnic groups.

Therefore, for example, the aborigines of Australia or the Indians of America, who are altogether very old, cannot be considered the oldest peoples. Within each of these groups there are many different ethnic groups or tribes that emerged relatively recently. Let us limit ourselves to historical peoples.

In the middle east
Every nation that has existed since ancient times wants to be known as the oldest. For example Armenians or Greeks. However, to what extent do modern humans relate to the ancient ones who shared the same name? However, we assume that this is a people that has only changed a lot over time. The same Armenians are known where they live historical sourcesFrom the VIII century BC BC and earlier the Urarts lived there, and they no longer exist. The Greeks (Achaeans) created the Mycenaean civilization at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. According to the Greeks, Hellas was previously inhabited by Pelasgians, who had also disappeared a long time ago.

But obviously the advantage in ancient times among the peoples of the Middle East. Which is the oldest? Are the direct descendants of the ancient Egyptians preserved to this day? Coptic language used in Coptic worship in Christian churches, there is a heavily modified ancient Egyptian language. But the language and the Copts themselves differ in nothing other than belief from the Arabs around them.

The Jews who rely on the authority of the Torah consider themselves older than the Egyptians. Scholars argue that modern Jews have a very distant relationship with the Bible.Jews are mentioned in ancient Egyptian sources no earlier than the 18th century. BC and never lived in Egypt but came from the desert.

Hence, the Assyrians should be considered elderly in relation to the Jews. They have been reliably known since the 21st century. BC. And perhaps not a single people in the Middle East has kept their name in such a long time. Sumerians, Elamites, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Aramaeans, Canaanites, Phoenicians - all disappeared from the earth. The communities themselves, of course, not their descendants.

Chinese are younger than many
That’s in the Middle East. But the civilization there is no older than in some other places. She is no younger in India and China. The first civilization in India along the Indus existed from the 21st century. BC. It is true we do not know the language of its creators. In any case, these were the ethnic groups that had disappeared. Chinese historical tradition traces the emergence of the first states in China back to the 21st century BC. At that time, the legendary Shang Yin Kingdom was formed. European scientists did not recognize the Chinese tradition for a long time, but in the end they agreed. With the fact that the Chinese are most ancient people, today many would easily agree. However, we agreed to look at people not only in terms of continuity of development, but also in terms of self-name. The self-name of the Chinese has changed repeatedly from millennium to millennium. The modern Chinese call themselves Han. This self-name only appeared in the 2nd century BC. Conclusion: The Chinese are much younger as a people, the Greeks, Armenians and Persians, not to mention the Assyrians and Jews.

The peoples remained in the shadow of great civilizations
But did the oldest people necessarily have to create a high civilization in the past? Couldn't some people be hiding on the periphery and in the shadows of historical peoples who had inhabited their lands from time immemorial?

Burish live in the high valleys of Kashmir. Your language does not touch any other language on earth. Their origin is unknown. Most likely, these are the descendants of the oldest inhabitants of Northern Hindustan, who were driven high into the mountains by subsequent Aryan newcomers. When and where did the Boer ancestors come to India? It is not known for sure.

There is a group of peoples commonly called Paleo-Europeans. These are the peoples who lived Western Europe before the arrival of the Indo-European tribes there. In Europe today only Basques speak pre-Indo-European languages. But the Basques themselves as an ethnic group were not formed until the Middle Ages. So you can't be the oldest people.

In contrast to the Paleo-Europeans, the Paleo-Asians are currently a very representative group. It includes many indigenous peoples of the north and Siberia: Kets, Itelmens, Chukchi, etc. All of them are descendants of the first settlers, the natives of these inhospitable corners of the planet. Judging by the time of human invasion from here to America, Northeast Asia began to be populated no later than 20-30,000 years ago.

Before the arrival of the Japanese to the islands that got their name, the mysterious Ainu lived there. However, under the conditions of the Stone Age, the ancestors of the Ainu produced the first ceramics on earth as early as the 13th millennium (!) BC. And the first humans appeared on the Japanese islands at least 32,000 years ago. Judging by archaeological data, there were no other major migrations to the islands until the invasion of the ancestors of the modern Japanese.

Priority to the Assyrians
One could say that in the dispute between the Chukchi and the Ainu over the right to be considered the oldest people on earth, the first word apparently belongs to the Ainu. But of course neither one nor the other is the oldest people. As ethnic groups, they are a product of a relatively recent historical period. So if we talk about peoples not only with self-names, but also with ethnic traditions and a preserved language, then the primacy in antiquity apparently belongs to the Assyrians, whose language, as scientists have recognized, has hardly changed since the time of Ashurbanipal.