How and why did England become Protestant
16th century: The spread of the Reformation in Europe
One of the most important reforms of the Lutheran Church, not only in the Holy Roman Empire, but also in the Scandinavian kingdoms that became Lutheran (Sweden from 1527, Denmark from 1529, Norway as part of Denmark 1539, Finland as part of Sweden from around 1550) the reduction of the seven sacraments baptism, communion, confirmation, confession, ordination, marriage and the last sacraments to two: baptism and the Lord's Supper. Most of the Lutheran churches emerged as episcopal or episcopal churches, the bishops of which, however, were not subject to the authority of Rome, but to the respective sovereign or head of state.
However, some reformers of the so-called second generation were far more radical than Luther: Johannes Calvin (1509–1564), born in French Picardy, and the Zurich theologian Huldrych Zwingli (1484–1531). Zwingli and Calvin not only developed their own doctrine of the Lord's Supper, but also predestination teachings. The Reformation in Europe split into Lutherans and Reformed, the latter among others. then on to Zwinglians and Calvinists. From Zurich and Geneva, the Reformation reached other parts of Switzerland, including. Basel and Bern, then also the free imperial city of Strasbourg. Calvinism also spread in France, where the first Huguenot churches arose in the 1550s in competition with the Catholic, Gallican Church. The Electoral Palatinate, the Netherlands, England and (parts of) Scotland also became Calvinist. Up until the 1540s, Strasbourg developed into an important center of exile for European Protestants, especially during the reign of the Catholic Maria Tudor on the English throne (1553-1558), who was held by her half-brother Edward VI. sought to reverse the Reformation introduced in England, Scotland and Ireland.
In Spain, Portugal, their overseas territories, and in Italy, the Reformation could not spread. Only in northern Italy, in the valleys of Savoy, did Waldensian parishes emerge.
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