What are qualitative, inexpensive gamification platforms

Gamification Innovation - Gamification.com

Gamifi c ation innovation Peer pressure Social relevance Intrinsic

Extrinsic driver play instinct behavior behavior change

Skinner Awards Achievements Challenges Skills

Neuroscience Brand Experience Game Design Psychology

play autonomy mastery meaning connectedness

Gamifi cation Critics Hype Expectations Behavioral Analysis Fun

long-term sustainable voluntariness superficiality rankings personal

Progress Points Marketing Loyalty Commitment Epic Win

Serious Fun People Fun Nike + Fold.it Ribbon Hero Trigger Contest

Learning Dopamine Risk Losing Winning Relationships Peer Pressure

Master thesis:

Meaning of gamifi cation for one

sustainable change in consumer behavior

by Michael Benzing

Social relevance Intrinsic Extrinsic Time pressure Simplify experiences

Motivation level rise connection company friendships

Hope employees customer loyalty croud sourcing maturity level transparency

Behavioral Economics Persuasive Design Morality Joy Mindset

Game Element Theory Practice Compulsion Social Games Trend Create

Avatar Personalize Predictable Extinction Corruption Effect Control

Microprocessors Emotions Experiences Brand Strategy

Simplifying Productivity Gamifi c ation innovation

group pressure Social relevance Intrinsic Extrinsic Drivers Play instinct

Receive Behavioral Skinner Awards Achievements

Challenges Skills Neuroscience Brand Experience

ame design psychology play autonomy mastery

Meaning Integrity Gamifi cation Critics Hype Expectations

maintenance analysis fun long-term sustainable voluntariness superficiality


Michael Benzing - @ 08MiChA80

www.gameandbrandthinking.de

[email protected]

Degree program: M. A. Strategic Marketing Management /

Submitted on: May 20, 2012

International School of Management, Dortmund

Supervisors: Prof. Dr. Christiane Beyerhaus

Dr. Susanne Görtz


Abstract

Gamification stands for the application of game elements and the way of thinking of the

Game development in non-game areas in order to encourage certain behaviors

change. While some marketing experts are convinced that all customer interactions

To be able to make activities engaging and motivating, critics warn against excessive

ten hopes.

This work takes a critical look at the potentials of Gamification apart and

analyzes connection points of established behavior and motivation theories. The

central question under what conditions Gamification a long-term change

can support consumer behavior, was based on qualitative experts

terviews examined. The respondents support the thesis of relevance intrinsic

Motivation mechanisms to enable sustainable behavioral motivation. The

Self-determination theory of motivation is seen as a good basis for intrinsic

Promote sic motivation and internalize external goals. Further potential

to promote behavior through Gamification are in the right balance between

the motivation and ability to act as well as the appropriate placement of the

Trigger that initiates the action.

Furthermore, the effect of gamified applications on the

Brand perception examined. This is done using a neuromark

ting model based on practical examples from Microsoft and Nike. The designed for this

Framework can serve as the basis for further analysis to ensure that

Gamified solutions fit the brand and target group.

The experts see huge growth potential in the application of gamifica-

tion to encourage certain behavior. The application of game elements

However, alone is not a guarantee of success. Instead, the creation is more personal

Relevance and the precise analysis of the target group and the target behavior under which

Consideration of situational circumstances as a basis for successful gamification

understand.

II


I Table of Contents

I TABLE OF CONTENTS

I Table of Contents ................................................ .................................................. ........ II

II List of Figures ................................................ ................................................. IV

III List of tables ................................................ .................................................. .... V

IV List of Abbreviations ................................................ ................................................. V

1 Introduction ................................................ .................................................. ..................... 7

1.1 Gamification as the key to consumer motivation .................................. 7

1.2 Objective and structure of the thesis ............................................ .................................. 11

1.3 Definition of Gamification ............................................................................. 13

2 Basics of human motivation and consumer behavior ............. 16

2.1 Motivation theory consideration ............................................... ............... 16

2.1.1 Behavioral theory ............................................. ................... 16

2.1.2 Flow theory ............................................ ...................................... 18

2.1.3 Motivation, ability and trigger of behavior ....................... 19

2.1.4 Influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators ...................... 22

2.1.5 Self-determination theory of motivation ..................................... 25

2.1.6 Sources of motivation and reward patterns ................................... 28

2.1.6.1 Sources of intrinsic motivation ............................................ .. 28

2.1.6.2 Characterization of reward profiles ..................................... 29

2.2 Approaches to behavioral science and behavioral change .................... 31

2.2.1 Implications of modern behavioral economics ............................... 31

2.2.2 Classification of the change in behavior ........................................ 34

2.2.3 Theory of planned behavior ........................................... ...... 35

2.2.4 From intent to behavior ........................................... ............... 38

2.2.5 Transtheoretical behavior model ........................................... 39

2.3 Summary of the theory of motivation and behavior

Examination ................................................. ................................................. 40

3 Influence of Gamification on motivation and behavior ............................................. 41

3.1 Classification of Gamification in adjacent areas ................................ 41

3.2 The role of play in human development .................................. 44

3.3 Basics of a game .............................................. ................................. 45

3.4 The attraction and motivational effect of games ................................... 46

3.5 Basics of game development .............................................. ..................... 48

3.5.1 Types of players and specific motivation to play ............................... 48

3.5.2 Perspectives of game design ........................................... ........ 54

3.5.3 Construction set of play elements ............................................ ............ 55

3.5.4 Player life cycle and player development ............................... 57

3.5.5 Influences of social factors on (play) behavior ................. 59

3.6 Development of game-like experiences .............................................. .............. 61

II


I Table of Contents

3.6.1 Lessons in Related Areas - Persuasive Design .............. 61

3.6.2 Gamification-Development Guide ............................................... 63

3.6.3 Approach to the design of playful behavior ........................... 67

3.7 Investigation more successful Gamification Examples ........................................ 71

3.7.1 Nike + ............................................. ................................................ 71

3.7.2 Microsoft Ribbon Hero ............................................ ....................... 73

3.8 Consideration of Gamification from a brand strategy perspective ............ 75

3.9 Theories examined in the meta-model ........................................... ................. 80

4 Empirical analysis of the meaning of Gamification ................................................ 82

4.1 Research method and implementation .............................................. ........... 82

4.1.1 Research objective .............................................. ................................. 83

4.1.2 Research design and selected experts .............................. 83

4.1.3 Developing guidelines and conducting the interviews ................ 84

4.1.4 Merging the hypotheses ............................................ .. 85

4.1.5 Critical consideration of the research design ............................. 86

4.2 Presentation of the results and interpretation ............................................ ... 88

4.2.1 Discussion of the definition of Gamification ................................... 88

4.2.2 Sources of motivation for sustainable behavioral motivation ...... 89

4.2.2.1 Relationship of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators ........... 89

4.2.2.2 Self-determination theory as a design framework ............... 91

4.2.3 Applicability of behavior models in Gamification Context 92

4.2.3.1 Motivation, ability and trigger as

Behavioral determinants ................................................. ...... 92

4.2.3.2 Theory of planned behavior as an explanatory approach ........ 94

4.2.3.3 Contribution of the transtheoretical behavior model ............... 95

4.2.4 Relevance of Game Design Lessons to Gamification ....... 97

4.2.4.1 Flow experience as the best gaming experience ................................ 97

4.2.4.2 Significance of player typologies ....................................... 98

4.2.5 Gamification to strengthen corporate communication .... 101

4.2.5.1 Identification of opportune moments of communication ............ 101

4.2.5.2 Influence of Gamification on brand perception ..... 103

4.2.6 Summary of the interview results ............................... 103

4.2.7 Role of novelty and additional interview results 105

4.2.8 Critical consideration of the survey results ....................... 105

4.3 Central challenges and possible solutions from Gamification .......... 107

5 Creation of a Gamification Framework for social communities ............... 110

6 Conclusion and outlook .............................................. .................................................. ...... 117

V Bibliography ................................................ .................................................. .. 123

VI Appendix ................................................ .................................................. ........................ X

Statutory declaration

III


II List of Figures

II LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Success measurement of the Gamification Service provider BigDoor ................................ 9

Figure 2: Structure of the thesis ............................................ ................................................. 12

Figure 3: Three types of expression of Gamification ........................................................ 15

Figure 4: The flow channel between excessive and insufficient demands ...................................... 19th

Figure 5: Internal and external determinants of action ........................................... ....... 20

Figure 6: Fogg's behavior model to explain the behavioral determinants ............ 21

Figure 7: Components of the behavioral determinants motivation, ability and

Opportunity ................................................. .................................................. .. 22

Figure 8: Differentiation of human types of motivation according to the SDT ....................... 25

Figure 9: Linking the types of motivation with the motivation profile .......................... 30

Figure 10: Model of the theory of planned behavior ......................................... ...... 36

Figure 11: Planning the change in behavior based on the TPB ....................................... 37

Figure 12: Behavioral components of the same equation ........................................... 38

Figure 13: Consolidation of the theories for behavior analysis .............................. 41

Figure 14: Gamification in the context of related scientific areas ................... 43

Figure 15: Bartles player types ............................................. .......................................... 49

Figure 16: Yees elements of player motivation ........................................... ................. 50

Figure 17: 4 types of fun and their activating elements ....................................... .... 51

Figure 18: Key terms of social motivation ............................................ ................. 52

Figure 19: MDA framework for displaying various game

Development prospects ................................................. ........................... 54

Figure 20: Motivation effect of selected game elements .......................................... 57

Figure 21: Player life cycle ............................................. ........................................ 58

Figure 22: Motivation cycle of the players ............................................ ......................... 58

Figure 23: Process-oriented consideration of motivation and effort ....................... 62

Figure 24: Exemplary procedure for gamification of websites ............................ 64

Figure 25: Comparison of play elements and needs .......................... 65

Figure 26: Basic structure of many Gamification-Applications ............................................ 66

Figure 27: Framework for creating playful behavior .............................. 68

Figure 28: Characteristic areas of the behavior-related player profiles .................... 69

Figure 29: Nike + enables transparency of running habits ................................. 72

Figure 30: Ribbon Hero feedback mechanisms ........................................... .......... 74

Figure 31: Connection of basic motivations and gaming experiences ........................... 76

Figure 32: Motivation profile of Nike and Nike + ......................................... ................... 77

Figure 33: Motivation profile of Microsoft and Ribbon Hero ......................................... 78

Figure 34: Completeness display of the social network LinkedIn ......................... 80

Figure 35: Meta-model of gamified behavior change .......................................... ... 81

IV


III List of tables

Figure 36: Funnel analysis of social games ........................................... ..................... 96

Figure 37: Model for identifying and integrating gaming preferences .......................... 99

Figure 38: MAO - analysis of target behavior .......................................... ..................... 111

Figure 39: Player profile of the online social platform ......................................... ......... 112

III LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Overview of the types of behavior change .......................................... ............ 34

Table 2: Levels of change, intention and processes of the TTM ........................................ ...... 39

Table 3: Principles of motivation to play and intrinsic points of contact .................. 48

Table 4: Standard strategies for the design of Gamification .............. 53

Table 5: Overview of the game elements ............................................ .................................... 56

Table 6: Summary of the interview results ............................................ ......... 104

IV LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

App application / application

CET Cognitive Evaluation Theory /

Cognitive evaluation theory

FBM Foggs Behavior Model

MDA Mechanics - Dynamics - Aesthetics

MMO massively multiplayer online game

MMORPG Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

SAPS Status, Access, Power, Stuff

SDT Self Determination Theory of the

motivation

TPB Theory of Planned Behavior / Theory planned

Behavior

TTM Transtheoretical behavior model

V


1 Deterding et al. 2011, p. 1

Gamification is the use of

game design elements

in non-game contexts ”1

6


1 Introduction

introduction

1.1 Gamification as the key to consumer motivation

Gamification is the new buzzword in the games and advertising industry. 2 Loved by the

One, criticized by the other, it often stands for the way out of the dilemma

of today's corporate communication, through that Gamificationit is said that consumer

employees and employees are motivated to interact and bonded to the company

the can.

A look at the current advertising market shows the need for new, engaging

render solutions. Advertising reactance is currently reaching its peak and one

A trend reversal is not to be expected with conventional advertising methods. Brands stand

facing the growing challenge of generating customer preferences,

who want peace and quiet within the flood of advertising. Projections showed that the

average consumer contacted daily with up to 5,000 advertising messages

which already suggests that very few even consciously perceive

men will be. 3

Media use is now more voluntary than ever. Therefore, the brand

communication should be designed to be more attractive than ever. 4 You must be the addressee

offer added value to be saved as memorable information

the. In addition, since the establishment of Web 2.0, the one-dimensional no longer applies

Sending messages, but the interaction with the consumer is in the foreground

the reason. This is particularly difficult because every operator of a website has a potential

ler competitor for the customer's attention. 5

Based on this difficult requirement for consumer interaction and

-motivation promise Gamification Service provider solving the problem. Through the

Set of game elements in a context alien to the game, they can apparently be used by users

motivate, promote desired behavior and support consumer loyalty

Zen.

2 Al-Zaidy 2012

3 Walker-Smith, Wondra 2010

4 Jung von Matt 2012

5 Arauz 2009

7


introduction

The previous uses of Gamification give the impression that every

daily activity can be more fun by adding game elements

and is able to motivate people. Starting with Nike + 6, the normal

Jogging becomes a competition through measurement and online comparison with others

to the web platform Fold.it 7, where the creation of protein patterns for

Puzzle is supported and thus research. Through Foursquare, the bar

visit to the title competition of the regulars and WAYN 8, an online community for

Travel, rewards its users for comments and ratings with points, badges

and status.

Gamification is the application of game elements in a context that was originally

has nothing to do with games. This should succeed in promoting motivation and play-

create similar experiences. Gamification Expert 9 Gabe Zichermann sees great

Potentials in influencing behavior. "Games are the only power in the

sum that can reliably induce people to voluntarily go against their originality

Interest to act. ”10 Accordingly, the potential lies in the motivational effect of

Transferring games to other areas by adding game elements and -

mechanisms used. Thus, z. B. cause users to become more intense

and deal with websites more often and through increased experience character one

Build a stronger emotional bond with a brand.

The goals most frequently pursued in corporate applications are here

User activity (44%), brand loyalty (33%) and brand awareness (22%). 11 The

follow-up measurements of the Gamification Providers speak for themselves and show values ​​that go up

were recently beyond the realm of possibility (see Figure 1).

6 http: //www.nikeplus.com/, Retrieved on May 2nd, 2012

7 http://fold.it/portal/, accessed on April 22, 2012

8 http: //www.wayn.com/, Retrieved on May 2nd, 2012

9 Gabe Zichermann became the most influential in the world in April 2012 Gamification Opinion

leader elected. http: // gamificationofwork.com/ tag / gurus /, accessed on May 2, 2012

10 Zichermann 2011b

11 Meloni 2011, p. 8

8


introduction

Figure 1: Success measurement of the Gamification Service provider BigDoor 12

These prospects explain the current high level of corporate interest in

cation. The market for Gamification Services, which in 2011 was still 100 million US

According to a survey by M2 Research, by 2016 to 2.8 milli-

arden US dollars grow. 13 In addition, the Gartner Group predicts that

until 2015 Gamification of 70% of Forbes Global 2000, the 2000 largest companies

men in the world. 14th

Although the idea of ​​using the attraction of games for purposes other than

that is not new is there for the current advent of the Gamification Trends four

essential factors:

1. Successful Gamification Pilot projects

2. Potential of social games

3. Improved measurability of actions

4. Rising expectations of young generations

The location-based application (app) Foursquare, which was developed in 2009 and to

Already had 15 million users at the beginning of 2012, 15 shows the potential of users

applications supported by game elements. At the same time, it provides the framework

12 http: //www.bigdoor.com/, Accessed on May 10, 2012; The market leader Bunchball has

the number of page visits, the length of stay and the repeated visits

100% increased, Takahashi 09/16/2011. A list of further efficiency measurements of gaming

fication is available at http://www.slideshare.net/ervler/gamification-how-effective-is-it.

Retrieved on 05/05/2012

13 Meloni 2011, p. 12

14 M2 Research 2011

15 Foursquare.de 2012

9


introduction

scaffolding of points, tasks, awards and rankings, whichever most

is based on gamified applications. 16

The success of comparatively simple social games like Farmville and Mafia Wars

is another driving force that shows that gamers are willing to spend real money for virtual ones

To pay goods. In addition, it becomes clear that millions of gamers regularly

can be achieved and that the appeal of games across all demographic

phical and social classes. 17 In Germany alone, the

currently 17 million people social games. 18 There are currently three per week worldwide

Played billions of hours of traditional computer and video games. It is assumed

admit that this number will increase significantly if through Gamification the game-

similar is becoming ubiquitous and games are increasingly merging with the everyday. 19th

Another cause is the technical progress brought about by or with smartphones

microprocessors connected to the internet enable all activities to be measured

sen and compare. According to the game designer Schell, this leads to

through the measurability, all activities can be turned into a game. In

of his vision of the future, the "Gameocalypse", we get points from the crane

walking insurance and rewards from toothpaste makers

for regular teeth brushing. 20th

The last force that drives trends is social change, which is caused by the genera

on Y, i.e. all those born between 1980 and 1995, 21 and the following

Generation Z 22 is initiated. Video games are the primary form of entertainment

of these generations, which also leads to an increased demand for interaction and

16 Deterding 2012

17 The average player is 37 years old and 58% male. Entertainment software

Association 2011, http: //www.theesa.com/facts/pdfs/ESA_EF_2011.pdf, accessed on

02.05.2012

18 Tripwire Magazine 6/16/2011

19 McGonigal 2011, p. 6; In Germany, 329 million hours are played every week.

http: //www.newzoo.com/ENG/1594-Infograph_GER.html, accessed on May 2nd, 2012

20 Schell 2010, http: //www.g4tv.com/ videos / 44277 / dice-2010-design-outside-the-box-

presentation / accessed on May 22, 2012

21 Bunchball 2012, p. 2

22 Grail Research 2011, p. 2. Other common names for the generation from 1995 to

2010 are Generation M for multitasking, Generation C for Connected Generation or Net

or Internet generation.

10


introduction

game-like experiences outside of games. 23 video games have a

right expectations created for real life. The perceived

The boundaries between play and reality are becoming increasingly blurred. Through the

set of new forms of play, such as augmented reality games, which use digital

This trend is further intensified.

Critics of this trend, which is very promising for companies, are often game design.

like Margaret Robertson, who find fault with current gamified applications,

that these pretend, using the simplest play elements, the attraction

to achieve the power of well-developed games. 25 game designers like Jane

McGonigal, lead the motivating effect of games, among other things, on the success

rich mastery of tasks and challenges, the balance between sub-

and excessive demands and the possibility of your own creative leeway. 26 This

according to the critics, is not the case with most gamified applications. Instead of-

points and awards are given out, which is insufficient

train is. Proponents, such as Gabe Zichermann, postulate in return that their

applications can achieve positive effects. Satisfying the need

according to status and recognition, can very well through gamified online communities

can be achieved. The intangible user reward in the form of online status leads to

minimal costs on the part of the company what companies and users are entitled to

Winners. 27

1.2 Aim and structure of the thesis

The conflict described over the effective use of game elements is

the starting point of this work and shows the explosiveness of the topic. The question of whether

Gamification really the new way to solve central challenges of the market

ketings has not yet been finally clarified. Is it really possible to customers

by awakening their playful instinct towards increased commitment and new behavior

23 Zichermann 2011a

24 According to the MTV study "Let's Play Brand 2011", 50% of Generation Y agree

ge to: “people my age see real life as a video game”, Goetzl 2011

25 Robertson 2010

26 McGonigal 2011, p. 22 ff.

27 Zichermann, Cunningham 2011

11


introduction

ten to move? Can boring things through play elements and thus exciting

the basis for brand experiences, customer loyalty, and improved customer relationships

get hungry? If Gamification meet expectations depends on three central

len determinants that form the subject of the work.

1. Is it possible to get through Gamification central motivational mechanisms in humans

to address?

2. Does increased user motivation have a significant effect on user behavior?

out?

3. Under what circumstances is it possible to increase motivation on a long-term basis

promote?

Within the scope of this work, building on the existing literature of the consumer

behavior and psychology should first be presented theoretically what human

motivated and motivated to behave in a certain way (see Figure 2). Subsequently

examines what motivates players in conventional games and what factors

have the greatest influence on behavior. A brand strategy analysis of two

Practical examples shows the influence of Gamification on brand perception.

On the basis of qualitative expert interviews, the explanatory contribution of the behavioral and

Motivation models for successful gamification determined. In addition,

that the potentials of Gamification as an instrument of corporate communication

checked. Based on the empirically determined knowledge, an exemplary

The framework for the gamification of a social community was created. The work ends with

the discussion of the questions asked at the beginning and possible development scenarios

of Gamification.

Figure 2: Structure of the thesis

12


introduction

1.3 Definition of Gamification

There are different perspectives from which Gamification can be viewed.

The following definitions show the different perspectives and difficulties

points from individual experts and make it clear that there is still no general

Definition has prevailed.

The most widely used academic definition to date by Deterding et.al. reads:

Gamification is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts ”28

Bunchball, the current one Gamification Market leader, defines it as follows: "Gamification

applies the mechanics of gaming to non-game activities to change people’s behavior.

When used in business context, Gamification is the process of integrating game dy-

namics into your site, service, comcommunity, content or campaign in order to drive partici-

pation and engagement. " 29

Jesse Schell, game designer and lecturer in entertainment technology, among others, chose

the following definition: "Gamification is taking things that aren’t games and trying to make

them feel more like games. " 30th

A comparison of the definitions shows that Schell has the instruments for gamification

does not describe in detail and thus the use of all methods and procedures

that make a game a game, implicitly enables. Accordingly, game-like

experiences in a context unrelated to the game are made possible. In contrast to this, the defini-

on from Bunchball is much more practical and shows the possible applications in

the foreground. Your main goal is to get through Gamification the behavior of users

change so that they can actively use the online services offered and

participate. The limitation in the business context is made because

Bunchball game elements linked to existing service packages and no game

le developed from the ground up. Thus, contrary to Schell's definition, the groove

experience in the foreground, but the target behavior defined by the company.

28 Deterding et al. 2011, p. 1, For further academic definitions such as from Huotari, Hamari

2011, p. 4 and Witt, Scheiner, Robra-Bissantz 2012, p. 1 will not be included because the

wrote definition by Deterding et.al. has become more widespread and the de-

includes definitions.

29 Bunchball Inc. 2010, p. 1

30 Schell 2011

13


introduction

This illustrates the different perspectives of game designers and gamificati-

of service providers.

In the further course of the work should Gamification in the sense of Deterding et. al ver

summarized definition can be understood. "Gamification is the use of game design ele-

ments in non-game contexts. " It is scientifically sound and closes at the top

named definitions. 31

Even if the clear majority of previous applications of Gamification in digital

len or takes place online, the definition should not be limited to this, as the

The boundaries between online and offline are disappearing and becoming more pure

Offline applications are possible. Games and their design are therefore

to understand different categories. 32

The "Game Design Elements" are often points, challenges and awards

Information that can be adopted from games and is detailed in Section 3.5.3

be explained. In addition, there is the game development mindset, in which continuous

It is often asked in which situations the fun lies and what is the player's motivation

can be increased.

The described "non-game context" is a constituent criterion for Gamification

and stands for areas of application that in the original sense have nothing to do with games

do have. The defined goal is, congruent to Schell’s definition, game-like experience

transferring information to other areas in order to enrich the user experience. On

a restriction of the definition to certain areas of application or purposes,

how it z. B. can be observed at Bunchball, is deliberately omitted in this work,

so as not to limit the multitude of potential uses in advance.

The restriction imposed by Bunchball on Gamificationin which a best-

The existing product is supplemented by play elements and thus reinforced, represents one of three

Forms of Gamification (see Figure 3).

31 Deterding et al. 2011, p. 1 ff

32 July 2010

14


introduction

Figure 3: Three types of expression of Gamification 33

One example of this is the Warner Brother website, 34 which users use for the

Performing certain activities, such as watching film trailers with digital goods

tern, e.g. B. exclusive desktop wallpapers, rewarded. The second option is this

permanent merging of product and core benefit. This is at Healthmonth 35 too

consider an online platform where users set their own health goals

be rewarded for discipline and have their behavior monitored by friends.

can sen. The third form of expression is the use in the form of a campaign at

which the game is only partially dependent on the product. The campaign is a

designed in a different way, ensures attention and brand experiences, such as the mini rally in

Stockholm. 36

The consideration of previous cases of Gamification shows application examples in all

industries that focus primarily on consumer interaction, customer loyalty and

Relate employee motivation. Previously gamified areas to increase loyalty

activity and commitment are e.g. fitness (Nike +), health (Bayer Didget; keas),

Finance (mint.com), Education (Khan Academy), environmental protection (Nissan Leaf), websites

(Samsung Nation) and many more. Examples can be found in employee motivation

for learning MS Office (Ribbon Hero), for motivation within an expert

rums (SAP Community Network), to increase the performance of the sales force

33 Deterding 07.07.2011, p. 15, http://www.slideshare.net/dings/gamification-die-lsung-fr-das-

engagementproblem, accessed on April 27, 2012

34 http: //insiderrewards.warnerbros.com/, Retrieved on May 22, 2012

35 http: // healthmonth.com/, Retrieved on April 22, 2012

36 The aim of the mini rally was to use the smartphone app to keep the virtual mini away from other players.

take and defend, at the end of the game time, the virtual mini against a real one

to exchange.

15


Basics of human motivation and consumer behavior

(Nitro for Salesforce) or for improved use of the intranet (IBM Connections)

the. 37 In the context of this thesis, the focus is on motivation and behavioral

of consumers. On the motivation of employees or specific loyalty

programs are not explicitly entered into, even if it can be assumed that

the knowledge gained is relevant to these areas.

2 basics of human motivation and the

Consumer behavior

2.1 Motivation theory consideration

The possible uses of Gamification are so versatile that the motivations

on effect cannot be attributed to a specific motivational end goal.

However, all practical examples have the common goal of motivating users to

Doing things that they would probably not or would not be able to do without the game elements

measure would have done. It is therefore about attention, activation, reinforcement best-

behavior and, in many cases, creating a positive experience,

so that the activity is repeated. To achieve this, a fundamental

understanding of the theory of human action is an essential prerequisite

settlement. Therefore, theories of motivational psychology and

holding science listed. In the further course of the work, the applicability

of theories and models verified empirically.

2.1.1 Behavioral theory

Behaviorism is a scientific concept that tries to

to develop behavior based on scientific methods. This means

that inner, psychic processes are not taken into account, but instead only the

Stimulus and response.

37 A more comprehensive list of Gamification Examples can be on

http://gamification.org/wiki/Gamification_Industries, or http: // enterprise-

gamification.com/index.php/de/beispiele can be found. Retrieved on April 30, 2012

16


Basics of human motivation and consumer behavior

Skinner studied operant conditioning and thus all types of purposeful

ter actions such as B. in the experimental context pressing a lever to feed

received, whereby the lining can be viewed as reinforcement. 38

Skinner's key findings are the evidence that a current behavior

occurs more often when it has positive consequences. The reinforcement can

carried out after every activity, at activity intervals or time segments

become. If the behavior is already linked to a reinforcement, the behavior becomes

cease to occur when the gain is removed, which is known as absorbance

becomes. Conversely, this means that a rehearsed behavior can only be achieved through

Continuation of the reinforcements remains. A learning process proceeds according to Skinner

particularly positive if the behavior is permanently reinforced while the behavior

ten in the extinction persists for a particularly long time if the amplification was previously in

at irregular intervals. 39

Even if Skinner's work was instrumental to the time, it is often criticized

been. Processes that take place inside the human being are ignored.

and the resulting mechanical image of man is based on experiments

tests were carried out with rats. 40 Nevertheless, the basic principle of

behaviorism, "do this and get that," one of the most widespread reward

mechanisms of our time, which is due to its ease of use

and demonstrably good effect for short-term obedience in education and work

has often prevailed. 41 Also in Gamification Applications users can use frequently

Be rewarded for certain actions, which leads to the rewards

need to be constantly renewed to maintain the behavior and extinction

to prevent. 42

38 Skinner 1953

39 Skinner 1933, p. 125

40 Chomsky, p. 142 f

41 In his book, Kohn provides a detailed overview of the spread of the behaviorist

principle and the resulting negative effects on human behavior

ten. Kohn 1999

42 Zichermann, Cunningham 2011, p. 27

17


Basics of human motivation and consumer behavior

2.1.2 Flow theory

The risk choice model developed by Atkinson to explain the achievement motives

tion, the subjective probability of success significantly influences the hand

lungs of a person. Too easy and too difficult tasks can neither

Feelings of obedience still cause disappointment, which leads to most people

However, choose tasks with a subjectively medium level of difficulty that demands them