Which triglyceride level is dangerous
High cholesterol - dangerous to the heart
Too much cholesterol in the blood is considered to be one of the strongest risk factors for heart and vascular disease. High cholesterol levels, as they occur in the context of a lipid metabolism disorder, can lead to heavy deposits on the blood vessel walls and thereby constrict the vessels. Such deposits in the coronary arteries - these are the vessels that supply the heart with blood - are particularly dangerous. If they are no longer or hardly consistent, a heart attack occurs.
- "Good" and "bad" cholesterol
Cholesterol is a blood lipid. It is produced in the body itself and is an important starting material for essential substances, e.g. B. hormones, vitamin D or bile acids. However, we also take in cholesterol with food, more precisely: with food of animal origin.
There is more than one level of cholesterol
When one speaks of the "cholesterol level", what is usually meant is the amount of total cholesterol in the blood. This total cholesterol value is made up of the amount of "bad" LDL cholesterol (LDL: low density lipoprotein), which is involved in the formation and increase of vascular deposits, and the "good" HDL cholesterol (HDL: high density lipoprotein), removes excess (LDL) cholesterol from the blood. Therefore, the LDL value should be as low as possible, while the HDL value should be as high as possible.
The triglycerides are also involved
Much less known than cholesterol are neutral fats or triglycerides. They are mainly ingested with food, but can also be made in the body from carbohydrates (sugar!) And alcohol. Excessively high triglyceride values can occur in congenital lipid metabolism disorders, but also as so-called secondary hypertriglyceridemia in the context of other diseases such as diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance or as a side effect of some drugs. The most common causes include poor diet, obesity, and too much alcohol.
- The deadly quartet
Changes in cholesterol and triglyceride levels (dyslipidemia), high blood pressure, obesity (waist circumference in women> 88 cm, in men> 102 cm) and insulin resistance together form the so-called metabolic syndrome, which is the main risk factor for the development of diseases of the coronary arteries (coronary artery disease ) applies.
- How high is too high?
What does "too high" mean? Basically, the total cholesterol value is described as too high if it is over 200 mg / dl (= 5.2 mmol / l). However, the “one for all” principle does not apply to cholesterol levels. Ultimately, the assessment depends on whether there are other risk factors such as B. Smoking, sedentary lifestyle, obesity or diabetes mellitus. These are the values to strive for:
- Healthy people with no additional risk factors and no evidence of cardiovascular diseases: total cholesterol around 190 mg / dl (5.0 mmol / l) and LDL cholesterol around 116 mg / dl (3.0 mmol / l) l / l)
- Healthy people with risk factors (smoking, overweight, high blood pressure, sedentary lifestyle): total cholesterol below 190 mg / dl (5.2 mmol / l) and LDL cholesterol below 100 mg / dl (2.6 mmol / l).
- If additional risk factors (e.g. congenital high familial cholesterol, severe hypertension, greatly increased triglyceride levels, very low HDL levels) increase the cardiovascular risk: total cholesterol below 190 mg / dl (5.2 mmol / l) and LDL cholesterol below 70 mg / dL (1.8 mmol / L).
- Patients with severe diabetes mellitus or a heart or vascular disease (e.g. heart attack, coronary heart disease): total cholesterol preferably below 180 mg / dl (3.9 mmol / l) and LDL cholesterol below 55 mg / dl (1, 4 mmol / l). The main goal here is to achieve low LDL cholesterol.
The triglyceride values should always be below 150 mg / dl (1.7 mmol / l).
- What helps against too much cholesterol?
Often times, lifestyle changes can lower high cholesterol levels.
Studies have shown that a reduction of up to 15% is due to a Diet change possible. It is less about avoiding high-cholesterol products such as the notorious eggs, but rather - in addition to more exercise - an overall more balanced diet. The preference for plant-based foods, the restriction of animal fats and a diet rich in fiber are often enough.
It is particularly suitable and very tasty at the same time Mediterranean cuisine with lots of vegetables, fish and high-quality vegetable oils instead of fatty meat or fatty sausage products - the ratio of “good” to “bad” cholesterol is positively influenced here.
This form of nutrition is also beneficial with increased triglyceride levels, and it is also here Avoid alcohol and readily available carbohydratesas they occur in large quantities in sweets or soft drinks, but also in white flour products, pasta or peeled rice, are important.
Increased exercise - especially in the form of endurance sports such as walking, cycling, etc. - supports weight loss and helps improve blood lipid levels.
Sometimes it doesn't work without medication
When cholesterol levels are very high, changing your diet alone is not always sufficient to reduce it. Cholesterol-lowering drugs, mostly from the group of so-called statins, are used here. These drugs can significantly reduce the risk of heart and vascular disease.
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