What was Freud's MBTI type

The typology of C.G. Jung and their application

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2 "Don't think I'm pigeonholing people and saying: or ... It's nonsense to categorize people and label them." (C.GJung, GW 18/1 34) The typology of C.G. Jung and its application Jürgen Kugele Development of type theory How did C.GJung find his type theory? As can be clearly seen in the above quote, it was by no means Jung 's concern to classify, catalog, and label people. Rather, his type theory developed - like many of his research results - from the creative processing of difficult and painful experiences that he had. In this case it was the processes of division within the psychoanalytic movement that prompted Jung to grapple with the problem of types. Under the impression of the deep rift with Sigmund Freud, which was preceded by the significant "apostasy" of Alfred Adler, he asked himself the question of the possibility of contradicting psychological theories. After the break with Freud, Jung wanted to clarify why they could both come to such different views of the human soul. Jung recognized "that the keynote to which Freud's psychology is attuned is the centrifugal striving for pleasure in the object, whereas the keynote of Adler's psychology is the centripetal striving for the subject, for its , its power and its separation from the oppressive powers of life ... The difficult task of the future will be to create a psychology which does justice to both types "(Jung GW6 949). The result of Jung's efforts to create a psychology that would do justice to both types was available eight years later in his work "Psychological Types" (1921). In a final word he comes back to the problem that prompted him to deal with typology: "It is a fact that I find overwhelmingly in my practical work that man is almost incapable of adopting a point of view other than to understand one's own and to accept it ... "(Jung ff). As already mentioned, it was never Jung's intention to characterize personalities through type theory! In addition, this would also completely contradict his credo to treat each patient individually with a method tailored to him. In a letter he explains: "As for psychological types, I must say that typology in the narrower sense always serves me as a critical apparatus, just as the idea of ​​a psychological typology is actually an attempt at a critical psychology. I am considering But this is only one side of my book. The other side deals with the problem of contrasts raised by the criticism. That is where the essence of the book lies, which most readers have not noticed, because for the time being they are tempted to do everything and to classify each typologically, which in itself is a rather sterile undertaking ... As a character psychoanalyst (diploma C. GJung Institute Zurich), management trainer and coach. Further training in systemic therapy with L.Boscolo and C Cecchin with the assistance of C. Weber and G.Schmidt (IGST) Heidelberg and in process moderation (Research Society for Process-Oriented Psychologist according to Arnold Minde ll. He is interested in researching and applying new theory to working with groups and organizations. He has his own practice and a consulting company in Heidelberg.

3 rological method, I never thought of my typology and never used it in this respect either. "(Letters 1, 171). Typology and its application Nevertheless, today there are several type tests based on Jung's typology. The most important are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI 1962), the Gray-Wheelwrights Jungian Type Survey (GW 1964) and the Singer-Loomis Inventory of Personality (SLIP 1977), with the MBTI being one of the most recognized and widely used instruments in the field of personality development worldwide Aside from the fact that Jung's successors are generally very skeptical of this and similar instrumentalization of Jungian theory, even among the authors of the above inventories - all Jungian analysts - irreconcilable differences become clear the typology is not only different, but also comes to mind promising results. The GW and the MBTI both work with relatively closed questions posed in the form of alternatives. In this way, it could be argued, some of Jung's hypotheses are built into the very tests that are devised with a view to their verification. On the basis of this idea, Loomis and Singer (1980) carried out an experiment in which they circumscribed the two classic tests so that they no longer contained fixed options. In the GW, for example, one question is: In a larger society a) I like to talk b) I like to listen. This point was replaced by two items that asked the same question, but were separated from each other in the test. After asking participants to use the "old" and "new" tests in the same session, some startling results emerged: the discrepancy between the old and new tests on a question as basic as superior function was 61 percent ! 48 percent of the respondents indicated an inferior function which one would not have traditionally expected in view of the superior function. Loomis and Singer ask the following questions: Why must the polarity between the superior and the inferior function be given so much weight when empirically it turns out to be so unreliable? And: does that not contradict the elementary Jungian idea that opposites can be transcended? They also ask why "Feeling and intuition or thinking and feeling or introversion and extraversion in the profiles, as they are developed on the basis of a questionnaire aimed at Jungian typology, never appear as the pair of the two most highly developed functions?" They conclude that there is something else behind this than just the fact that the questions only allowed a "forced choice answer" (1980, p.353): There was no critical discussion of the polarity that Jung invoked. Jung was more interested in oppositions within the rational or irrational functional pair than in the rational and irrational tendencies of the same person because he was convinced that true opposites have a common basis. Loomis, Singer, and others, however, reject the idea that the inferior function should belong to the same side of the dichotomy between rational and irrational as the superior. Perhaps they have been quite right about this rejection for many years, says Samuels. As stated, the type theory is also not undisputed for many Jungians. Storr represents e.g. the view that while the division into extraversion and introversion has proven valuable and continues to stimulate research, the division of functions "has been shelved by all but, and even by, very staunch Jungians I, it is probably little used ". (Storr 1974.1). Those of the Jungians who deal more deeply with typology do not use it as a static-diagnostic element, but rather see their value in grasping the development and relationship dynamics, i.e. the conscious and unconscious interplay between therapist and client. As a Jungian analyst in management consulting Die Typologie C.G. Boys was therefore only a marginal topic during my training at the C.GJung Institute in Zurich. I only got to know and really appreciate the MBTI - and with it the typology - when I began to concentrate on work in and with organizations. At this point in time I had already completed further training in "Systemic Therapy", which familiarized me with goal- and solution-oriented thinking, but that did not seem to me to be sufficient. So I was looking for tools and methods that should make it easier for me to enter a world that formulates structure, target and result orientation, efficiency, increased sales, shareholder value, etc. as central concerns. Due to the requirement to design my first seminar for executives of a company on the topic of "leadership and personality", I dealt "seriously" with the MBTI as a "tool" for the first time and was surprised at the opportunities it offered. In the meantime, I mainly work with the MBTI, using it in leadership and personality training, in group dynamics and team development seminars and in coaching processes, and was thus able to gain a lot of experience in the applicability of the MBTI. It is thanks to these consistently very positive experiences that I was able to subject Jung's typology to a renewed and in-depth study with great profit.

4 My concern as a social scientist was and is to expand my psychotherapeutic competence into those fields in which the exchange process between the individual and society and, above all, the exchange of the individual and collective unconscious takes place - namely in organizations. In the last few years I was particularly enthusiastic about the idea of ​​applying Jungian theory beyond working with typology to working with organizations. I wanted to find out whether, in addition to people who work in organizations, organizations themselves, e.g. to individuate, to have an unconscious, a shadow or even a subtle body, to form myths and symbols or to dream. I wanted to know what constitutes the self and the soul of an organization (Chappel, The soul of a business 1993). The typification and characterization of organizations and companies (Bridges 1998) raise questions such as: "How is the life cycle of an organization designed and can it be designed?" And: "How can working with the inferior function and the shadow of a company contribute to its ability to change?" These and similar questions occupied me as part of the training project "Process Moderation" in Berlin, in which fellow consultants and analysts from the Research Society for Process-Oriented Psychology from Arnold Mindell tried to transfer his concept of the "dream body" into work with organizations (Mindell, Traumkörper- Labor or the Course of the River 1993). The research of Loomis (Dance of the Type Wheel, 1994) on the connection between Jung's typology and the structure of the medicine wheel of the North American natives has encouraged me to continue my own attempts and experiments to combine the typology with the structure of the medicine wheel. I had elements of it for a long time - e.g. the "council assembly" - translated into working with companies in the context of designing new models for learning organizations. In the meantime I work with the MBTI as well as with other approaches, e.g. that of Loomis and Singer, who creatively apply Jung's typology. In all of this, of course, the knowledge of unconscious mechanisms, the perception of unconscious signals and shadow issues, and in general the way in which the inferior function works, plays a central role. In contact with trainer and consultant colleagues I noticed that many of you are not able to recognize unconscious processes, especially those in larger social systems, and to include them in the counseling process. The consequence of this is a form of practice of advice, supervision and training that is often technologically oriented and restricted to real subject areas of the conscious mind. There is just as little room for reflection on the design of professional life and the search for the realization of meaning and self-discovery as expressed in it, as well as reflection on the unconscious dimensions of institutional structure and dynamics. Consultants and trainers who are able to understand what is happening in an overall context of society, culture and human life on the conscious and unconscious level are rather the exception. The MBTI is also used by most users without knowledge of unconscious processes and their dynamics in interplay with conscious processes. An astonishing experience that I have made in this context is that this is often not bad at all, as a great deal can also be achieved by a more superficial, consciousness-oriented handling of the MBTI, namely above all the appreciation of differences and different perceptions. A highly recommended example of this is Gabriele Stöger's book "Better in the Team", which teaches in a very practice-oriented way how more effective work can be made possible through the knowledge and conscious handling of the different strengths of individual team members and the team leader. However, the term inferior function does not appear in this book; the neglected function is briefly described once. One of the dangers of such a purely mind-based approach is that, as M.L. v. Franz describes below, the attempt is simply made to add the neglected function to the dominant function, thereby losing its power and the creative potential for change and transformation. Often, out of ignorance, the inferior function is equated with Jung's concept of "shadow". Another risk is that users get stuck with typing and thus lose the dynamism that the instrument offers for development, so those affected are more likely to be pigeonholed again than finally to give up pigeonhole thinking with the help of the MBTI. That is why I would like to conclude by conveying to my consultant and trainer colleagues who mostly use the MBTI without in-depth knowledge of Jung's conceptual structure and concept of man, something of the possibilities that the counseling process can offer through in-depth study of the Jungian concept of the inferior function and the archetypal relationship dynamics between consultant / client can enrich. This topic is to be deepened in the near future for interested colleagues as part of an extended MBTI trainer training. Heike Berger, Christa Eversmeyer and Jürgen Kugele for their contributions on the occasion of our conference on May 1st, 1999 in Stadtkyll. Almost 50 participants enthusiastically followed Jürgen Kugeie's excursion into the depths of Jung's psychology. Due to the positive response, we have decided to give Jürgen's lecture as a special issue of communication and development to all members. The board of directors

5 The inferior function as a creative, creative function Jung observed that the function paired with the main function often causes a lot of difficulties for the individual. He calls the problematic function the "inferior function". It is this area of ​​consciousness that causes difficulties for a person. On the other hand, the inferior function - which for the most part remains in the unconscious - contains a considerable potential for change! This potential can be realized through the effort to bring the contents of the inferior function into consciousness and thus to integrate it. The realization of the inferior function is a main element of individuation, because it rounds off the personality. For the individuation process "... the union of opposites is necessary and especially the difficult task of combining extraversion and introversion by means of the transcendent function." (Jung GW11, 803) The transcendent function - which one achieves through hard work - builds a bridge between two aspects of the personality that were previously separate. Jung used the image of alchemy to explain how individuation progresses through the transcendent function: "Its (alchemy) secret is the fact of the transcendent function, the transformation of personality through the mixture and connection of noble and ignoble components, the differentiated ones and the inferior functions, the conscious and the unconscious. " (Jung GW7, 360) From the point of view of the self, the most valuable function is that which has the best relationship to the unconscious: the inferior function! This aspect is well illustrated in fairy tales, where the youngest of three or four royal sons, the one who is least trusted, performs the heroic deed. Interpreted from the individual conscious point of view, the king represents the collective main function and the youngest son the undeveloped function. He stands for the despised part of the personality, the ridiculous and unadapted, but at the same time that part that has the connection with the unconscious wholeness of the Person manufactures. Such fairy tales show how the life lived out of the main function alone can come to a standstill and receive new impetus through less developed functions. The types are by no means static in life. They form a quaternio, a whole, the various components of which change in the course of life. It means that what one has previously neglected, perhaps even loathed, is raised to a differentiated state. If the individuation takes place consciously, the old dominant function does not disappear. It mixes and merges with the new function. The aim is to develop all of our possibilities.For the full development of human consciousness, all four functions must be differentiated and work together harmoniously. The wholeness of the personality is therefore not a simple additive process, for example in the sense that the extraverted attitude should be joined by the introverted in the second half of life. "A mistake some people make is thinking that they can bring the inferior function up to the level of the other, conscious functions ... it has merged with the unconscious and remains in that state. Attempts to bring it up would be like attempts "Bringing up the whole collective unconscious, something you just can't do. The fish would be too big for the line. So what to do? Put it out again? That's regression. But if you don't give up, there is another alternative." : The fish will pull you into the water. At that moment a great conflict arises ... It is a humiliation to go down to the lower level with your other functions. This then creates a stage between the two layers at about the level where everything is neither thinking, nor feeling, nor feeling, nor intuition. Something new is coming up, namely a completely different, new setting- Congress Centrum Mainz DGAT Conference 30. Oct.'99 Sch Main topics: Possibilities and limits of the DISG, Managing Director DISG Germany - afterwards discussion in the context of the MBTI The Insight Potential Analysis - Frank M. Scheelen Institute - afterwards discussion in the context of the MBTI We ask for early registration. ment to life in which one uses all the functions, but not all the time. "(.. Franz 1980,29) During a seminar Jung once explained the importance of integrating the four functions: With two functions, he said, we have" acquires the divine ability to contemplate ourselves. With three functions we are able to observe how we look at ourselves. "About the development of the fourth function, too, he said: ... that is perfection, that is number 4. That would be the achievement of the perfect one Divinity of man, namely a complete self-criticism by man himself "(Seminar Traumanalyse 1991). The Archetype of the Wounded Healer As we have seen, the inferior function as a wound that remains open forms the bridge to the unconscious. The inferior function and the sore point are completely connected. So I only discover new life potential when I get involved in the inadequate, inadequate, alien character of the inferior function. As consultants, we should be familiar with our own inferior function so that, for example, no blocking common shadow dynamic arises, we avoid typological requirement situations (logical explanation of the feeling type, or to demand a clear affect signal of the thinking type), because that leads to blockage. Familiarity with the inferior function helps the client system cautiously through the "Rotati-

6 on "of its functions. The inferior function turns out to be not only the unconscious function (adjacent to the shadow and anima / animus), but also that mental field in which healing symbols arise between two people Conscious focus opening the inferior functions of advisor and client, i.e. both interaction partners, to the archetypal layers of the psyche, the symbol of the inner healer can constellate as one side of the archetype of the wounded healer in the counseling process and experience is superior, there is no transfer of experience. It is then only (consciously) taught instead of enabling lively learning and experience through confrontation with the shadow. The archetype of the wounded healer is then divided intra- and interpersonal, ie : the consultant sees himself only as the strong one, he does not feel his wound, its inferior function working from the unconscious. He sees himself e.g. only as an expert in a particular method that he would like to teach the inexperienced client. In the relationship with the counselor, the client experiences himself only as the weak, his own inner healer remains unconscious; this is also linked to the inferior function. Both project their own split-off parts onto the other, i.e. the counselor his wound on the client and the latter his inner healer on the counselor, who is experienced as strong and effective. This contact between the consultant and his own wound is not about explanations or conscious communication of wounds, but about the perception of his own wound and inferior function, which opens up room for development to the other. The practicing discovery of the inferior function can be understood as "discovery of slowness" (challenge for active extra vertebrates). It is what makes dealing with the inferior function so daunting - you don't have the time, especially in our "business" of advising companies. But this is precisely where the challenge lies for me: To create a connection between the demands of an ever faster outer world, driven by profit, consumption, performance, effectiveness, globalization and the needs of the soul, which is still too much banned and treated in the protected and shielded therapy rooms. The soul that is still too little recognized and cared for as represented in the "world" and in the objects of this world, as the Jungian analyst James Hillman shows us in his startling book: "One hundred years of psychotherapy and the world is getting worse and worse". It's about serving yourself and the world - of which you are a part - at the same time. That's what I mean by the new "service culture". The aim of my article is once again very aptly expressed by the Chinese term So Sang Yi. So Sang Yi means both "doing business" and "wholeheartedly fulfilling the meaning of life". And I wish you that. Literature: Blank, R .; Bents, R .: MBTI - The 16 basic patterns of our behavior according to C.G. Jung, 1992 Brigdes, W .: The character of organizations, 1998 Chappel, T .: The soul of a business, 1993 Hillman, J .: Hundred Years of Psychotherapy, 1993 Jung, CG: Psychological Types GW 6, 7, 11, 18 / 1, seminar dream analysis and letters Loomis, M .: dance of the type wheel, 1994 Mindell, A .: dream body work, 1993 Samuels, A .: Jung and his successors, 1989 Stöger, G .: better in a team, 1996 Storr, A .: CG Jung, 1974 BC Franz, M.-L: On the typology of C.G. Jung, 1980 Com unication & development Journal for personality, team and organizational development DGAT Board of Directors: Marien Theiß Dr. Jörg Schwall Adelheidstr Wiesbaden Tel .: 0611 / Fax: 0611 / r. Jörg Schwall Grünstr Leverkusen Tel .: (02173) Fax: (02173) Andrea Lundschien Communication & Development is published every six months, distribution list: specialist magazines, universities, psychologists and members of the DGAT. With the acceptance of the manuscript, the editor acquires the exclusive right of exploitation. With the exception of cases permitted by law, exploitation including reprinting without the publisher's written consent is punishable. The copyright of the concepts lies with the publisher.