How was Carthage different from Rome?

Zeitbilder 2, textbook

52 The Romans conquer a world empire The founding of Rome - legend and reality Founding legend If you believe a legend, the city was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus. About 2000 years ago, a Roman scholar even calculated a founding date for the city of Rome. According to our calendar, which is based on the birth of Christ, this was the year 753 BC. Grown farming village History, however, came to different conclusions with the help of archeology: Significantly older settlement remains on the seven hills of Rome suggest that it has been here since around 1000 BC. Chr. People lived. Around 600 BC The inhabitants joined together to form a single city-state. The Romans ruled Italy The Celtic invasion Even as a small city-state, Rome was repeatedly at war with its neighbors. Once it was a war of aggression, then a war of defense. The Romans were most threatened by a raid by the Celts (387 BC). When these invaded the city, the Romans fled to their castle on the Capitol *. They paid a large ransom, then the Celts left. Victorious Wars After this shock, the Romans attacked. In many wars they gained more and more national territory in Italy with a well-organized and well-armed army. With the victory against the Greek cities in southern Italy (272 BC) Rome ruled almost the entire Italian peninsula. Rule in the provinces The Romans secured the conquered land with many colonies * and built roads there. In an emergency, they could quickly relocate their combat units (= legions *). In the event of war, the subjugated had to make troops available to the Romans and were not allowed to form alliances with one another. The Punic Wars The End of Carthage Only a few years after the conquest of Italy, three wars against the Punians * ensued. They lasted more than a hundred years. The Punians ruled the entire western Mediterranean from the North African port city of Carthage *. This brought them into opposition to Rome, which was also striving for supremacy. After the eventful course of the war, the Romans remained victorious in the end. Carthage, once the most powerful trading city in the Mediterranean, was founded in 146 BC. Literally razed to the ground. With this victory, the Romans took control of Spain and North Africa. From urbe condita, 1st cent. The Roman historian Livy * describes the history of Rome in his work “Since the city was founded”. He also incorporates legends into his presentation with the following justification: Q I neither want to confirm nor refute what is passed down more in poetically decorated legends than in historical testimony about the time before and when the city was founded. Antiquity has always combined the divine and the human, honoring the city's beginnings. And if any people are allowed to trace their beginnings back to divine founders, it is certainly to the Romans; for the peoples bear their rule calmly and also tolerate the Romans seeing the god of war Mars as their ancestor. (Livy, Roman History) Discuss the difference between the legend and the results of scientific research. Explain why Livy used the ancient Roman sagas for his historiography and how he assesses their truthfulness. Work out from the text how Livy assesses the importance of the Romans. Work according to M1 The Carthaginians also used fighting elephants in the war. The Roman soldiers, initially horrified by the sight, finally learned to frighten the animals. The elephants did more damage to their own ranks than to the Romans. (Plate painting from the 3rd century BC, site of the La Macchie necropolis) For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv

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